Concepts of Human Resource Management

Introduction

Work force management is one of the key factors that determine the success of any organization. This is because, considering the current changing working trends, and variability of the labor market demands, it is very important for an organization to maintain a cohort of workers who not only posses the required proficiency and capability, as concerns achievement of quality results but also, fully motivated and dedicated employees.

Therefore, owing to the complex nature of many organizations, and the extensive nature of activities that occur in organizations every day, it becomes necessary for organizations to have a department that manages all workers’ concerns; hence, the importance of the human resource department (Ivancevich, 2006, p. 1-2).

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In any organizational setting, this department deals with any labor related issues; primarily management of workers’ issues; hence, not only helping an organization to achieve its goals, but also helping it prepare itself for any future turbulent times in the labor market. Preparations for such turbulent times in the labor market depend on management practices or policies adopted by organizations, as concerns the management of employees’ affairs.

Such policies should apply from the first day when such organizations recruited their employees to the last day when they are quitting job, depending on the prevailing conditions. It is important to note here that, good employee management policies are not only important when it comes to work performance and goal achievement, but also to some extent, they give organizations a good rapport.

Such a good a rapport is important in the corporate world in that, it will act as an attracting incentive to other qualified individuals who may be willing to join the company, but are not very sure of the nature of working conditions in that organization (Armstrong, 2006, pp 3-8). This paper will examine concepts of Human resource management and their importance in the smooth running of an organization hence, acting as a primary incentive to organizational success.

Human Resource Management (HRM)

The success of any organizational process depends on the proficiency and dedication of employees in that organization. In addition, such proficiency is only attainable in scenarios where workers are enthusiastic and well motivated to work, depending on the prevailing working conditions.

On the other hand, is important to note that, motivational levels primarily depend on the employee management policies that organizations adopt. This is the case because; organizational policies determine the nature of working conditions, remuneration packages, skill improvement measures, recruitment practices embraced by organizations.

Hence, this makes it crucial for all organization to embrace good HRM policies, for not only does they help to alleviate unrests, which may arise as a result of poor employee management practices, but also the department helps to bridge the gap, which exists in organizations, between the top management organs and employees (Armstrong, 2006, pp. 10-22).

Primary functions played by the this department in an organization include hiring and firing of workers, ensuring employees enhancement programs are in place, controlling employees activities; through helping workers maintain positive and healthy relationships amongst themselves, and providing of solutions to conflicting issues, which may arise between employees themselves or between employees and managements.

In addition, considering the structural complexity of many organizations, it is crucial for establishment of a desirable communication channels between employees and the principal management organs, for this in many ways will act as a motivating incentive to employees.

This is the case because, in most organizational setting, always there is a great variability as concerns employees’ demands or needs. Moreover, because it is very hard for organizations to meet all those needs, it becomes necessary for organizations to establish mechanisms of attending to such needs, to avoid unrests that may arise as employees may feel that, the top management organs have neglected their outcries (Armstrong, 2006, pp 53-59).

As Borade (2010, p.1) argues, for human resource managers to achieve such functions, they need a combination of core skills obtainable from many diverse fields that endeavor to understand the human nature. Such knowledge areas include sociology, psychology, and knowledge areas dealing with the understanding of modernism and structuralism.

In addition, proficiency in paralegal concepts is very crucial, for it forms the backbone, when it comes to dealing with employees’ grievances. Other important knowledge fields, which practitioners in this field must be conversant with include industrial engineering, and a comprehensive understanding of concepts relating to industrial structuralism.

Functions of the Human Resource Management (HRM)

The HRM process involves the entire planning, execution, and ensuring employee management schemes adopted by organizations work effectively, a fact that is crucial for the smooth running of an organization.

It is important to note that, the core purpose behind adoption of correct management policies is to ensure that, an organization achieves its set targets as it endeavors to improve its employees’ welfare; for employees are the backbone of any business unit or organization.

In addition, it is also important to note that, the entire process not only involves adoption of measures, which will ensure employee personal status improves, but also such measures are crucial when it comes to personal improvement of the manager career-wise (a fact that many attribute to the many fields that deal with the understanding of the human nature).

On the other hand, it is necessary to note also that, the entire process must follow specific ethics and laws, which primarily define the connection between business practices and employment (Ivancevich, 2006, pp. 63-72)).

The success of HRM departments depends on the planning, execution, and critical assessment of any employee managerial strategies and set of laws. This is crucial in any business scenario, in that it helps HR managers to obtain a desired equilibrium between organizational objectives and worker’s wants.

In doing this, HRM managers must note all the present and future labor or work output and input needs of an organization, for it plays a crucial role, when it comes to the formulation of workable implementation strategies. Such execution measures must take into consideration four important activities namely possession, growth, maintenance, and appreciation or rewarding (Ivancevich, 2006, pp. 30- 42)

The primary focus of this department depends on the financial, physical, human resources available at an organization’s disposal. Considering this, it is not wrong for an individual to argue that, the entire HRM process is primarily concerned with control of important decisions that have different impacts on the nature of the working and employee appreciation mechanisms adopted by an organization.

For HR managers to achieve their primary roles, it is worth understanding different employees’ motivational levels and work proficiency.

This understanding process is crucial, as concerns employee role assignment, depending on the one’s areas of specialization. In addition, such a process is crucial when it comes to appreciating employees efforts, for it helps in the improvement of workers’ self worth, a factor that is crucial when it comes to work performance; in terms of quality and quantity (Connell & Philips, 2003, pp. 137-152).

It is important to note that, management of employees’ sometimes can be overwhelming to the HR mangers hence, making it necessary for wider consultation with other organizations’ executives in making important decisions as concerns employees’ welfare. In addition, it is also necessary to note that, depending on the size of an organization, the human resource department may have different individuals managing different aspects of employees needs.

Although this is the case, such departmental managers must be accountable to the overall HR managers, them being the overall controllers of the department. The ‘subordinate” managers or individuals who help the overall HR managers include employment and placement specialists, employee relations managers, conflict resolving specialists, labor relations specialists, and employee remuneration control managers.

Although these individuals deal with diverse aspects that affect employees, it is important to note that, they all work with a single objective in mind; to improve organizational welfare, in terms of finding an equilibrium point as concerns achievement of organizational goals, while minding the employee’s welfare (Bureau of Labor Statistics: United States Department of Labor, 2009, Para. 3-13).

The entire HRM process commences, with planning for workers. This entails the process of critically investigating an organizations labor demands considering present organizational conditions and future employment patterns. In addition, this process involves determining which organizational departments have deficits in work force. In doing this, managers must take into consideration organizational future labor needs depending on the changing industrial patterns, where the specific organization belongs.

After ascertaining the labor demands, recruitment follows, whereby organizations can use either interviews or other testing methodologies. The core function of the testing exercise is to ascertain the level of proficiency of job applicants. This is also crucial when it comes to job placement, because majority of individuals are highly motivated if the HR managers assign them jobs in areas they are proficient with or areas that have the desired expertise on.

For the recruitment exercise to be a success there is need for recruitment experts to ensure that, from time to time they get in touch with “surrounding” communities, for it is the only sure way of ensuring an organization hires workers with desired proficiency or expertise. In addition, the success of this exercise depends on the recruiting panel’s knowhow of the equal opportunity (EEO) concept.

On the other hand, because rules determine any recruiting measure opted for, it is important for individuals in this panel to acquaint themselves with the affirmative action set of laws. These laws are very crucial in eliminating any biases that may occur during the entire exercise hence, acting as a mechanism of preventing the many lawsuits that may result due to a biased exercise (Ivancevich, 2006, pp. 182-209).

To ensure that new recruits are acquainted to an organization’s operational systems, this department has to organize and offer training opportunities to all employees regardless of their capability. In addition to training opportunities, some organizations use some performance appraisal measures as mechanisms of giving responses on employees’ success, a concerns achievement of organizational goals hence, forming the basis of any training orientation adopted by such organizations.

On the other hand, owing to the nature of changing work mechanisms; due to technological advancement and globalization, it is important for organizations to offer proficiency enrichment opportunities to their employees. At this level, it becomes very crucial for HR managers to formulate motivating opportunities that will not only enhance workers’ proficiency with work, but also offer opportunities that are beneficial to an organization.

Such enhancement opportunities are crucial in that, they help an organization have a workforce that matches with global labor standards; an important factor in case an organization wants to expand its global market or transfer some of its core competencies (Bureau of Labor Statistics: United States Department of Labor, 2009. P.1)

Another major function of this department is making decisions on the compensation and benefits packages, which an organization should award each employee. Majority of big organizations mandate this duty to the occupational analysts, or employees’ benefits managers, who work in close collaboration job analysis specialist in ensuring this exercise succeeds. It is important to note that, employee benefits ranges from mere salaries; which include other appraisal benefits, to retirement packages.

Other employee benefits that need serious consideration include health benefits to both active employees and individuals who have retired from official duty or have complex health problems. On the other hand, it is the function of the HRM manager to advice the top management organs on the importance of providing their employees with accident and death coverage, which in most cases is in form of insurances and other wellness programs.

Apart from benefits (inform of money), HR managers have the overall role of ensuring organizations provide their employees with psychological and emotional support in various work and personal related issues. This can be in form of counseling sessions and other outplacement opportunities (Armstrong, 2006, pp. 643-657).

One main factor that determines an organization’s success is the nature of relationships that exist between different employees. In any working scenario, conflicts may arise due to many ideological differences, which may exist between different workers or between workers and managements.

Due to many problems associated with such unrests, it becomes necessary for HR mangers to formulate correct or appropriate conflict resolving mechanisms; peaceful co-existence among different working parties being one of the success factors of any organization. In most organized organization, labor relations managers, referees, affirmative action directors, and equal EEO managers perform this role.

Achievement of success in any organization goes hand in hand with conducive working environments. In this regard, the HR manger has to ensure an organization maintains safe, conducive and appropriate working conditions.

This is not only crucial in alleviating many accidents, which may occur as a result of poor conditions; hence costing an organization a lot of funds, but also it may act as a motivator to workers. This is because, to some extent, this may be a show of how much an organization cares about its employees’ welfare and wellbeing (Connell & Phillips, 2003, pp. 152.160).

Considering the correlation between the above functions of this department, all of them are crucial, as concerns the well-being of both an organization and its employees.

In addition, although many may relate the Human Resource Management knowledge to business and organizational management practice, it is crucial to note that, majority of human resource management concepts are important in many spheres of life ranging from the simple home management to the extensive organizational management.

On the other hand, considering the extensive nature of human resource concepts, the discipline prepares one for any future career primarily because, at any point workers form the backbone of any social, political, or economic development.

Optimizing the Role of HRM

Generally, HRM concerns itself with employee management concepts whereby, considering the importance of workers to any organization, it is important for any management team or manager to adopt good and workable employee management schemes.

It is important to note that, regardless of the management scheme adopted by any organization, motivation is one of the main concepts that such management schemes should embrace. In organizational setting, motivation takes many forms ranging from the simple provision off good working environment, to the inclusion of monetary reward systems.

Other activities that can act as motivators include promoting workers with outstanding performances, and giving employees control over the activities they perform. This should be the case because, the granting of freedom has many benefits to workers and the overall organization, because of the ideological innovative nature associated with it.

Other ways of maximizing achievements in this department include offering workers talent improvement chances, in terms of trainings and seminars. This is very crucial in any present organizational setting in that, it equips workers with required skills in any market scenario (Ulrich& Losey, 2005, pp. 1-17).

Conclusion

In conclusion, correct management of an organization’s work force plays a central role in ensuring an organization succeeds in any of its daily endeavors. Adoption of correct management policies is critical, in that presently, the labor market is undergoing many changes, due to the continuously changing work patterns.

In addition, considering the diverse nature of many organizations, it is necessary for organizations to have this department, for it helps to provide solutions to worker grievances in addition to alleviating the gap that exists between workers and top management organs.

On the other hand, it is crucial for practitioners in this field to always remember that, employee motivation is one of the primary factors that determine the success of any policy implemented. In this regard, HR managers should make sure they include concepts of motivation measure they adopt; something they can achieve via studying and critically analyzing workers’ characteristics.

Reference List

Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page Limited. Retrieved 30 March, 2010, from

Borade, G. (2010). Functions of the Human Resource Management. Buzzle. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from

Bureau of Labor Statistics: United States Department of Labor. (2009). Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists. OOH.
Retrieved March 30, 2010, from

Connell, O. A., & Philips, J. J. (2003). Managing employee retention: a strategic accountability. Massachusetts: Butterworth Heinemann. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from

Ivancevich, J. M. (2006). Human resource management (10th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Ulrich, D., & Losey, M.R. (2005). The future of human resource management: 64 thought leaders explore the critical HR issues of today and tomorrow. New York: John Wiley &Sons, Inc. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from

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