Recommendation Memorandum

In this paper, I would like to make a recommendation to the administrators of Midwood High School regarding their intention to purchase notebooks for their students. In particular, I can suggest that they should acquire laptops of MacBook Pro series manufactured by Apple since 2006.

This memorandum contains a careful evaluation of two products, namely MacBook Pro and MacBook Air. Special attention is paid to their advantages and disadvantages, namely such aspects as price, performance, and functionality of these devices. It is possible to say that MacBook Pro can offer more opportunities to learners. Moreover, this laptop has a better price-quality ratio. In the following sections of the memorandum, this argument will be explained in more detail.

I. Background: The Choice of Technologies for Schools

The administrators of many schools want to adopt the most cutting-edge technologies in effort to facilitate students’ academic performance and improve their experiences. However, the problem is that it is often difficult to choose the product that will correspond to such criteria as good price-quality ratio, excellent functionality, design, and reliability.

Furthermore, one should distinguish between commercial information provided by manufacturers and accurate assessment of technological devices. So, very often schools fail to purchase laptops that really meet the educational needs of students. Thus, the problem has several dimensions. On the one hand, school administrators have to keep within budgetary constrains that are often very tight.

Yet, they also have to make sure that learners can acquire knowledge and skills. This is the issue that the administrators of Midwood High School should address. MacBook Pro seems to be the most optimal choice for this educational institution because this laptop is well-suited for various learning activities.

In particular, one can speak about tasks as searching information on the Internet, text editing, team communication in group projects, programming, and so forth (Kay and Sharon 362). Furthermore, when choosing a laptop, people should pay attention to such criteria as ease of use, speed, reliability, functionality, and certainly price.

II. Evaluation of two products: MacBook Pro and MacBook Air

a) Technical specifications

In order to compare these laptops, one should focus on such technical specifications which are probably the most important evaluation criteria. There are several indicators that are closely related to performance. In particular, it is necessary to speak about the storage capacity of the hard-disk drive, memory, processor, and the dimensions of the display. These are the most important benchmarks. The following table presents the compararison of MacBook Pro and MacBook Air:

Product MacBook ProMacBook Air
Display 15,4 inches in diagonal13, 3 inches in diagonal
Processor 2.3. GHz quad core processor (Apple Inc. unpaged)1.8GHz dual-core processor (Apple Inc. unpaged).
Memory8 gigabytes of 1600 MHz DDR3 Memory.4 gigabytes of 1600 DDR3 memory (Apple Inc. unpaged)
Storage770 gigabytesFrom 129 to 256 gigabytes
USB Two USB portsTwo USB ports

Drug Test for Teachers and Athletes in Schools

Drug testing is a heated topic for both athletes and job candidates. Presently, the media and regulatory authorities focus on mandatory testing for students who love to participate in co-curricular actions. It is essential to review the drug testing policies in schools though the contemporary society focuses on the right to confidentiality.

This sensitive issue needs careful examination. Additionally, drug use among student athletes and teachers remains a grave problem in schools. However, the issue of teacher testing has become normal in court cases because the majority of the educators are of the opinion that the cost and time used to exercise random tests should be utilized efficiently in class.

However, some educators argue that teachers who behave poorly in class need to be tested for drugs in case their supervisors suspect any instance of substance use. Additionally, the institution has the right to conduct drug tests if the school administrator has a feeling that their subordinates abuse drugs.

This is not considering the fact that the exercise may be demeaning. This investigation highlights issues concerning drug test in learning institutions and provides adequate information regarding my position towards the issue. Additionally, it explains vital aspects concerning drug test within learning institutions.

My position on Drug test for teachers and student athletes

I support the drug test on both teachers and student athletes in institutions because it will prevent athletes from experimenting with drugs. Additionally, it will identify individuals who use drugs to advance their performance in co curricular activities.

Students engaging in athletics and music were subjected to unsystematic testing after former president bush’s government promoted a program that focused on eliminating drug use (Darling, 2005). However, some parents and teachers are labeling the exercise as an ineffective measure of discouraging drug use. This is because they believe that the exercise undermines trust and interferes with students’ privacy (DuPont & Brady, 2005).

Legal perspective on Drug Test

The Supreme Court ruled that schools had the capacity to exercise a drug test to students suspected of using drugs. In 2002, there was enactment of a decree requiring that all students participating in athletics undergo a drug test. After this ruling, Bush’s government spent eight million dollars to assist institutions pay for drug test procedures.

Other regions have also supported the drug test because the Florida governance process recently approved a bill that necessitates steroid analysis among student athletes. This is because steroid use among student athletes has become a contentious concern over the precedent years.

After the supreme ruling, more schools have incorporated the exercise of drug testing as they seek to battle the issue of drug use among student athletes. These programs consist of compulsory testing among student athletes. Consequently, schools have initiated drug testing to all co curricular students (DuPont & Brady, 2005). Drug testing in institutions grew is attributable to the efforts geared towards fighting drugs.

In 1980, drug test among citizens was a rare activity only exercised only by law officers on grounds of suspicion. After some time, there were numerous cases of substance use among the population. This propelled the desire for compulsory drug test. This inclination broadens from the public sector to public institutions with an intention of testing student athletes.

The continued campaign to eradicate drug use in America is taking a positive turn (Owings & Kaplan, 2004). After the invasion of drug testing in organizations, this trend has shifted primarily to learning institutions.

This exercise is significant because it will minimize the tendency of student athletes to commence using drugs to advance their performance in sporting activities. Drug test among student athletes will assist these adolescents to shun substance use. According to Conlon (2005), the possibility of student detection will play a significant role in convincing them to stop using drugs.

Moreover, this exercise will spot drug users and allow both counselors and parents to intervene early and assist these students recover from the habit early enough. Additionally, this exercise will easily detect student athletes who are highly dependent on drugs. This will enhance adequate arrangements to ensure that these students seek quick treatment or join rehabilitation programs.

It is essential to detect student athletes using drugs during initial stages because the possibility of an individual recovering from an addiction reduces according to his or her dependency (Conlon, 2005). The bulk of individuals start abusing drugs while in school. Even though some people regard this activity safe as long as it does not lead to addiction, these innocent experiments can be detrimental because several individuals will find it hard to cease from substance use.

Therefore, a drug test exercise will discourage student experimentation with drugs minimizing the hazards associated with substance use. One cannot neglect the numerous cases of drug use among students. Most individuals do not grasp the extent of this issue that educators are trying to solve. Some reports reveal that nearly fifty percent of student athletes have used drugs during sport competitions clearly depicting the magnitude of this issue (Conlon, 2005).

Contentious issues on Drug Test

However, for an institution to initiate a drug test program, the first step is analyzing requirements. Foremost, the institution needs to figure the height of drug use in the general community and among student athletes.

According to (Wong, 2010) there is need to conduct small surveys among students and parents to judge the necessity of the program. If there is a clear need for this program, the institution may go ahead to seek funding for the project. Even though the institution can seek other means to obtain funds, the community must also contribute funds towards the program.

These funding from the community would be a worthwhile investment in future and would be much minimal than what drug related accidents could cost the community in general in case these measures lack (Wong, 2010). An individual detected to using drugs through this program must undergo serious intervention by teachers and counselors because it will assist the student to return to full productivity.

It is essential to refer students with a high dependency on drugs to a treatment program so that they can receive medical assistance. Implementation a drug test program will prove to be a deterrent against substance use in learning institutions (Brendtro & Martin, 2006). Furthermore, separation of these students from substance use will culminate in the emergence of a generation that is free from drug.

Drug Test on Teachers

Apart from testing students, exercising a drug test to teachers remains a sensitive issue. Random testing of teachers proves to be an expensive exercise. The funds allocated for this testing should instead be directed to education supplies or salaries. Additionally, the school administration could save huge amounts of money by exercising a drug test only for teachers who exhibit erratic behaviors.

Some reports reveal that some teachers have successfully sued their work institutions for drug testing. These numerous cases have propelled the court to rule that random testing of teachers tends to violate their civil rights but agrees that a drug test to teachers is only necessary in case they behave in an erratic manner.

Before hiring of teachers, the majority of school districts necessitate that teachers undergo a drug test and most teachers argue that this practice has the capacity of eliminating unfit teachers. This reduces the need for further testing in future (Russell & Classey, 2005). If an outcome of a drug test is positive, some teachers may lose their jobs while others may seek drug counseling, subjecting the teachers to needless embarrassment.

Arguments Regarding Drug test on Student athletes

Random testing proves to be a contentious attempt to fight drug use among students but the cons related with this testing have propelled both parents and teachers to rethink the effectiveness of this exercise. These random tests are at times unreliable and can give the administrators a fake sense of security.

Moreover, though these tests can detect individuals using drugs, it does not guarantee an alteration in behavior on drug use compared to counseling programs (Russell & Classey, 2005). A case favoring indiscriminate testing is that it deters abuse. Additionally, the main intention of administrators implementing a drug policy is to increase the need to refrain from drugs.


Conclusively, drug test will allow the athletes and teachers to acknowledge that dug use is improper. Stern measures will deter both teachers and students from abusing drugs. It is clear that relevant cases and instances of drug abuse provide the necessary insight into the corrective procedures.


Brendtro, L. & Martin, A. (2006). Respect versus surveillance: Drug testing our students. Reclaiming Children & Youth, 15(2), 75-81.

Conlon, C.K. (2005). Urineschool: A study of the impact of the Earls decision on high school random drug testing policies. Journal of Law & Education, 32(3), 297-319.

Darling, N. (2005). Participation in extra-curricular activities and adolescent adjustment: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 34(5), 493-505.

DuPont, R. & Brady, L. (2005). Drug testing in schools: Guidelines for effective use. Center City, Minn: Hazelden.

Owings, W. & Kaplan, L. S. (2004). Best practices, best thinking, and emerging issues in school leadership. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.

Russell, B., & Classey, S. (2005). Adolescent attitudes toward random drug testing in schools. Journal of Drug Education, 35(3), 167-184.

Wong, G. M. (2010). Essentials of sports law. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger

Issues of Japanese Cultural Identity

Through anime productions, Japan has today become a significant player in the global cultural development and economy. Many people across the world label anime as Japan’s major cultural export. The products and ideas have extended across the world. While it is hard to give a proper definition for anime, many people have defined cartoons and images presenting fantasy and imagination as part of anime. This makes the animated works a major aspect of the Japanese culture.

Issues of Japanese Cultural Identity

In Japan, animated caricatures and films have become important than elsewhere in the world. Unlike the presentation of cartoons in the Western countries, Japan’s anime is definitely a mainstream phenomenon that continues to define pop culture.

The young generation and other members of the Japanese society have accepted the idea thereby making it a classical portrayal of the Japanese staple culture (Drazen, 2003). There is the continued production of animated characters for movies, books and other related medium. For example, Spirited Away is a Japanese animated movie telling the story of Chihiro who enters a world inhabited by monsters and spirits.

Yoruba who is a witch transforms her parents into pigs. The witch forces Chihiro to work in her bathhouse where she plans to free her parents and escape from the mystery. Similar films are common in Japan. Such films have played a huge role to promote the issues of the Japanese cultural identity.

This has made the country outstanding compared with other cultures. The anime is today fitting accurately into the contemporary visual culture in Japan. In the country, these animations and similar portrayals help a lot in educational purposes and even commercial enterprise (Poitras, 2001). At times, the idea of animations has become part of policy implementations and political resistance. The use of anime has helped the Japanese for years to express unique powers and fantasies that form the imaginary world of the people.

As observed in the film Spirited Away, the industry and literary works have always used animations as a way of promoting the Japanese culture, beliefs and traditions. For anyone interested in the culture of the Japanese, it would be fascinating to use animations to present their ideas, powers and concepts (Drazen, 2003).

This is a rich and fascinating approach to present the aesthetic and visual aspects of the culture. As well, this becomes an innovative approach aimed at promoting media and art in the country. Different analysts have indicated that anime with its breadth and analysis of subject matter remains a resourceful mirror on the Japanese society. This makes it possible to understand some of the issues, dreams, fantasies and nightmares that define the modern society.

The other way the anime productions deal with the issues of the Japanese and their cultural identity is by presenting the aspects and ideas that define the people of Japan. Japan is today a major cultural and commercial force in the global society (Poitras, 2001). With the presentations of these animations, the culture has influenced the western world.

This is the same role played by its ideas and technological developments. The production of animated films such as Spirited Away presents this aspect and identity of the Japanese people.

An Anime production offers an opportunity to explore the cultural force that is fascinating. The world absorbs the productions thereby presenting the relationship between local cultures and the global culture. At the time when the Americans have dominated global culture, the influence of these animations is something unique because they offer the identity of the Japanese and eventually becoming as a unique cultural resistance (Drazen, 2003).

The anime productions have become a form of culture and popular tradition that shows the true picture of the Japanese roots. This has helped the people to exert a wider influence and promote Japanese ideas.

In Japan, the supernatural and imaginary world is common both for cultural and religious practices. Anime productions have offered the people an opportunity to produce these ideas and narratives to define their traditions and cultural foundations (Poitras, 2001).

The narrative styles, imagery, humor and psychological aspects running through these animations have helped establish the Japanese culture across the world. As more people watch these films and anime productions, it has become easier to promote the Japanese culture and identity than ever before.


The important thing is that the anime productions are in the form of narratives not visual styles. The Japanese consider animated films as a medium in which there is the combination of the visual aspects and elements. The approach makes generic and philosophical structures that help to produce a unique world.

The reason why the Japanese use animations to present these ideas is that their world and culture is tragic, sexualized and provocative. The complexity of the stories makes the anime productions effective and analytical of the Japanese cultural aspects. The use of anime productions in Japan is a practice that has helped position the cultural identity of the people. The influence has been enormous to the western world thereby making the culture unique and spectacular.


Drazen, P. (2003). Anime Explosion: The What? Why and Wow of Japanese Animation. Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press.

Poitras, G. (2001). Anime Essentials: Everything a Fans Needs to Know. Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press.

Important experience that influenced my perspective

Two years ago, I was among a group of individuals who ventured into consultancy. Numerous challenges, most of them related to the start up contributed to delays in the launching of the organization. Since we had already invested a considerable amount of capital into the primary preparations, success was the only option. Since we were sure of success, most of us donated tuition fees, as we were well aware that revenues from the firm would enable us to revert to class.

Unfortunately, that was never meant to happen. We lost all our funds chasing the most important deal and failed to complete college due to lack of fees. Ultimately, we decided to revisit the idea, albeit with caution. First, we identified a niche market and built our capital base from reliable sources. Although we are ambitious, we are fully aware of our capabilities and realities.

Currently, I am quite aware of the difference between dreams and realities, what I can and cannot do. The primary reason for failure was the overestimation of our capabilities and abilities. Through attitude and authenticity, I have grown tremendously, both professionally and academically.

First, the failure offered me an opportunity to discover my capabilities and limitations. Awareness related to ability to handle risks, pressure and demands from multiple roles has been the most prominent blessing in my life. I no longer find it hard to turn down offers that I cannot fulfill and reporting failure is manageable. Although failures have slightly reduced over the years, I have accepted myself as a human being.

Second, I have work out the ability to regular training, which is I enjoy the most. Although I always expected to a behind-the-desk person, I am comfortable in front of people and I enjoy passing on information. Lastly, my attitude towards life has slightly changes. Although there is room for improvement, my focus is mostly directly towards living a full life.

I actually hope to live more that 100 years. However, due to circumstances, I am forced to live everyday as if it is my last day. However, if I was sure that I would live 100 years more, I would love to contribute to the elimination of non-literacy among the remotest and most neglected locations.

Education is the only source of socio-economic empowerment. Human beings live according to the law of survival of the fittest. Education helps people adapt to the modern world, be strong and active, enabling human beings to appreciate life and everything it has to offer. That is why I dream about improving literacy and education levels of all human beings..

I am awesome since I have a unique set of characteristics that make it possible for me to perceive things in a completely different way from others. Over the past year, the journey to self-realization has led me through challenges and successes that I thought impossible. As days been passing, I have realized that hard work is the easiest path to any desirable outcome.

Being unique at hard work has opened up my ability to benefit from the three A’s of awesome as outlined by Pasricha: Attitude, Authenticity and Awareness. Although it is possible that other human beings could come to similar outcomes if put to task, it is impossible to duplicate my contributions to the world. As a result, I am awesome because I have realized that the world would be different without my contribution, and better with it.


Hinduism is one of the oldest and widespread religions in the world; currently it is practiced by people who may live in very different countries. This paper is aimed at discussing the main principles of Hinduism, it cultural aspects and its impact on the society in the United States.

The knowledge of these issues is important for understanding the diversity of modern societies in which people may have different beliefs, values or even perceptions of God. Overall, one can identify the following characteristics of Hinduism, namely the acceptance of different religious views, the belief in reincarnation of soul, and the idea that God can take many different forms.

Furthermore, it should be noted this religion is now practiced in many Western countries, such as the United States and its presence increases the diversity of modern American society and makes people more aware about the variety of religious beliefs.

First of all, Hinduism is very difficult to define because this religion incorporates a variety of beliefs that recognize the moral authority of the Vedas which are religious texts originating from ancient India (Mittal and Thursby 3). Moreover, Hinduism includes several denominations or groups of people who may have different rituals. It should be noted that there are several distinct features of Hinduism.

Certainly, the supporters of this religion accept the existence of God as a higher power that created the universe. Moreover, God is present in every living being. Yet, Hindus think that an individual can worship God in different forms. The deity can have different identities such as Shiva, Vishnu, or Brahma (Neusner 186). It is difficult to determine whether Hinduism is monotheistic or polytheistic religion. The thing is that in some denomination of Hinduism, people can accept the existence of several deities (Neusner 186).

Thus, Hindus do not accept the idea that God can take only one form. This is one of the issues that people should remember. Moreover, people should take into account that Hinduism is not based on some specific canon or a set of written sources. The Vedas do play an important role in the lives of Hindus, but various religious leaders could provide their own interpretation of God and morality.

Secondly, it is worth noting that this religion does not set direct requirements for the worshipers who may follow different religious rituals. More importantly, Hinduism does not reject other forms of religious faith. It is not opposed to Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. Hindus do not argue that their view on God and the universe is the only possible one. These are the main distinctions of the religion and people should remember about them when interacting with Hindus.

One should also discuss the culture of Hinduism. It should be taken into consideration that Hinduism evolved in the course of several millennia during which Indian subcontinent witnessed many political, social, and demographic changes. Furthermore, Hinduism can be practiced in different countries, for example, India, Sri Lanka, or Bangladesh.

This is why one should not suppose that this religion is always associated with some distinct cultural values or practices. There are several rituals that play an important life in the cultural life of Hindus, for example one can mention, different forms of yoga, or festivals such Gudi Padwa and Bihu (Kaur 1968).

These festivals are held by Hindus who may live in different countries. Secondly, Hinduism accepts the idea of material possessions and even sensual pleasures provided that a person does not violate the ethical principles, especially if he/she does not limit the freedom of other people.

Additionally, it is possible to identify several cultural values that Hindus usually recognize, in particular, the respect for elders, modesty, and acceptance of ones limitations and weaknesses. So, this religion stresses the humility of an individual. These cultural values affect Hindus’ relations with other people.

Additionally, one should note that Hinduism can now be practiced in the United States for more than a century. Certainly, this religion is not followed by the majority of the popularity. Yet, nowadays, Hindu temples can be found in different parts of the country, for instance, one can mention such states as California, Illinois, New York, and so forth (Neusner 180).

Many Hindus live in such urban areas as Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco, or New York (Neusner 180). This religion is followed by people who came to America from India or Sri Lanka. There are several ways in which this religion influences the society. First of all, one can mention that American people have become more aware about religious and cultural practices that may exist in non-Western countries.

The presence of Hinduism makes people more aware of the fact that there are various forms of religious faith, and they can differ from the Judeo-Christian tradition which is dominant in the United States. Some of these practices have become very popular, for instance, one can mention Yoga that is very popular among many people. Therefore, the influence of Hinduism can be considered positive because this religion emphasizes the necessity of tolerance and respect toward the views of others.

Overall, I have a positive attitude toward Hinduism, even though I did not have direct contacts with this religion. As it has been said before, it accepts different forms of worship and religious faith and it is not opposed to other religions.

This feature greatly appeals to me because the supporters of Hinduism do not think that their religious views are in any way superior to those of other people. Secondly, Hinduism does not impose certain restrictions on worshippers. They do not have to follow certain rules, when worshipping God.

In other words, these people have a relative degree of freedom. So, a person, who is not affiliated to any religion, may have a favorable attitude toward Hinduism. Certainly, my judgment may be very subjective, and more accurate assessment can be given if I learn more about the beliefs and ethical principles that Hindus recognize and various denominations of this religion.

On the whole, these examples suggest that contemporary Hinduism is a vibrant religion that can now be practiced in Western and non-Western countries. Its principles include the rejection of dogmatism and emphasis on the liberty of an individual.

In the course of its history, it underwent several significant changes, but it does remain appealing to many people in part because Hindus do not claim their perception of God is better or more accurate than the beliefs of other people. The presence of Hinduism in the United States can be seen as a positive force because American people can learn more about the ethical and cultural aspects of other religions.

Works Cited

Kaur, Raminder. Performative Politics and the Cultures of Hinduism: Public uses of Religion in Western India, Delhi: Anthem Press, 2005. Print.

Mittal Sushil, and G. Thursby. Studying Hinduism: key concepts and methods, New York: Routledge, 2008. Print.

Neusner, Jacob. World Religions in America: An Introduction, Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2009. Print.

Medieval Science

One of the main foundations in the study of science is the validation of theoretical propositions through experimental data. Theories can then be evaluated to be true or false depending on experimental results. The verification of theoretical prepositions can then help us to predict multiple outcomes in our world. In the direction of trying to understand the universe, man has developed an array of disciplines that do not necessarily follow the experimental approach which is used in contemporary science.

Medieval science is among the most important disciplines that have resulted from man’s effort to understand his universe (Fisher, 2011). Although some of the prepositions and beliefs in medieval science are contrary to common sense and contemporary science, medieval science is still finding a wider acceptance in the general populace.

The inclusion of astrology columns in all major newspaper editions tells a lot about our general beliefs. Perhaps, contemporary science is ignoring “undiscovered” forces that play a crucial role in influencing our lives; thus, forcing man to seek alternative means of understanding mysterious phenomenon (John, 2005).


Among the most common disciplines that have been in application over many years, despite their unscientific approach, include astrology and alchemy.

In a nutshell, astrology is a discipline which revolves on the concept that our behaviors, destinies, and our general life is pre-determined and influenced by forces from celestial bodies. Astrology is a broad discipline that is based on astronomical observations which have been noted over many years (Stefanos, 2011). Life in the ancient world, including medicine, politics and religion was centered on astrological beliefs.

Although astrology has a wide berth of acceptance and application in our modern world, scientists have argued against the use of astrological prepositions as facts. Phenomenons that can be “explained” by astrological prepositions should thus be considered random and accidental.

Like astrology, alchemy is a discipline that is based on prepositions that are contrary to intuition and scientific approaches. Alchemists believe that it is possible to transfer the form of an object to another object through the process of metaphysics.

Because of their existence, objects are considered to posses some form of metaphysical powers that can be moved from one object to another. Among the most important beliefs that are held by modern alchemists is the possession of healing powers by crystals. Some modern healers propose the combined use of crystals and meditation for healing certain ailments (Andrew, 2008).


In the direction of ascertaining the claimed healing power of crystals, I set out to perform an experiment to test the healing notion of crystals. Among the most common approaches that can be employed in the direction of verifying hypotheses is the use of chi-squared experiments.

First, a hypothesis is stated. For the stated hypothesis to be valid, the results of our experiment should conform to the stated hypothesis. Variations from the expected theory are then evaluated. Wide deviations of experimental results from the stated hypothesis indicate that the hypothesis is invalid.

My experiment focused on the theory that when combined with meditation, crystals have supernatural healing powers. The assumed supernatural healing power of crystals was then tested on flies. During the experiment, our laboratory assistant created eight samples of flies with a type of mutation referred to as vestigial.

Vestigial mutation prevents flies from developing wings on emergence from the pupa stage of growth. However, some flies may develop wings despite having the vestigial mutation as a result of naturally occurring processes in their genes. If quartz crystals have healing powers, samples that had been exposed to the crystals and meditation would be expected to contain a large number of flies with normal wings.

During my experiment, I received eight different samples of flies from my laboratory assistant. Four of these samples had been exposed to quartz crystals and meditation. The other four had not been exposed to crystals and meditation. During the experiment, I was not aware of the samples that had been exposed to crystals and meditation.

One vial of four samples was labeled “X” while the other was labeled “Y”. On receiving the samples from my laboratory assistant, I carefully removed flies from each sample while making a count of those that had developed wings. After recording my observations, I did a chi-squared analysis.


I was able to observe a total of five flies that had vestigial wings in sample “X”. Here, a total of 58 flies from a total of 65 flies had normal wings. On the other hand, sample “Y” did not yield any flies with the vestigial condition. Here, a total of 99 flies from a total of 99 had normal wings. The results of the crystal experiment are illustrated below:

My calculated chi-squared value was 8.11. Since there are two observable conditions (normal or vestigial flies), my degree of freedom is one. Having obtained my chi-squared value and my degree of freedom, I referred to the chi-squared distribution table to obtain the probability figure for my experiment.

For this particular experiment, my acceptable range for deviation was 5%. For my calculated chi-squared value, I obtained a probability that lies between 1% and 0.1%. Thus, for this particular experiment that I performed, only 1% of the experimental observations were due to chance. Since my acceptable range of probability was 5%, the crystal hypothesis (that quartz crystals have curative powers when combined with meditation) was shown to be invalid.


The quartz experiment disapproved the hypothesis that quartz crystals have supernatural healing powers. If the hypothesis was true, we would have observed a substantial number of vestigial flies in either sample. According to the calculated chi-squared value, an accuracy of 0.1% was required to verify the quartz hypothesis. Even if we placed unclassified flies either way, the results of the experiment will not be altered.

Besides the quartz experiment, I also conducted another experiment to test the hypothesis that astrology can predict future events in our lives. Here, eight short paragraphs that talked about the days of eight different people were written on cards. Each of the cards was assigned eight different letters. An effort was then made to match the predictions of eight different horoscopes with the card entries.


According to the observations that I was able to make during this particular experiment, there was no any match between the predicted horoscopes and actual events that had been entered on cards. Since there are twelve different horoscopes, the expectation is that at least one in twelve outcomes would be predicted.

The ratio of total responses to actual matches was ?:0. Thus, this particular experiment has disapproved the hypothesis that horoscopes can be used to predict actual events in our lives. A chi-squared analysis for this particular experiment yielded zero. Thus, since I could not calculate an appropriate probability for a zero value. I was not able to proceed with the chi-squared analysis.


The above experiment has clearly shown that horoscopes cannot be used to predict actual events in our lives. After subjecting the horoscope hypothesis to a test experiment, it was clearly concluded that the horoscope hypothesis is invalid. Since eight different horoscopes from eight major astrologers were used in this particular experiment, the observed results had a degree of high accuracy. Interestingly, a considerable proportion of people believe in the prediction power of horoscopes.

Since many people base the prediction power of horoscopes on future events, they tend to bias the predicted outcomes of the horoscopes to fit into their future expectations. So as to eliminate the tendency above, I pre-recorded data on events that had already occurred before trying to match those events with corresponding predictions from the horoscope. The horoscope experiment is thus reliable in disapproving the notion that horoscopes can predict future outcomes in our lives.


Results from the quartz crystal experiment invalidated the hypothesis that, when combined with meditation, crystals have supernatural healing powers. Likewise, the horoscope experiment disapproved the notion that horoscopes can be used to predict future events in our lives.

In both of the two experiments, I tried to establish if observed outcomes agreed with stated hypotheses. Usually, many beliefs in medieval science are based on superstitions and prepositions that cannot be proven by experiments to be true. Still, many hypotheses in medieval science are still finding a large following in our modern world. Although scientific approaches have their own limitations, it is more practical and useful to rely on scientific methodologies on given issues in our lives.

Reference List

Andrew, M. (2008) Science versus fiction. Retrieved from

Fisher, F. (2011) Statistical tables for biological agricultural medical research.

Retrieved from

John, A. (2005) Are medieval beliefs true. Retrieved from

Stefanos, A. (2011) Greek folk magic Retrieved from www.

Latin America

In order to maintain a stable economy, it is critical for governments to adopt relevant policies that cushion crucial sectors from economic shocks. The failure in this regard is likely to result in a vulnerable economy that cannot guarantee the survival of vital sectors in the aftermath of a global phenomenon such as the Great Depression.

Although some economic policies may vary from one region to another, others play a crucial role in the transition of any developing country into industrialization. The political environment in a region is crucial concerning the adoption and proper implementation of various economic policies. Policy makers play a central role in reforms and thus possess significant effects on a country’s economic transformation.

The Great Depression largely marked the onset of changes in the economic policies adopted by Latin-American countries. This period adversely affected a significant portion of the Latin America, which largely depended on the role of supplying raw materials to different parts of the world as a means of generating income.

Because of the weakening of the global economy, industries in the affect countries minimized the importation of raw materials. This severed the chief source of foreign currency for various Latin-American countries and led to a rising trend of poverty and social chaos.

Thus, there was the need for collaborative efforts by various stakeholders within Latin America to draft economic policies that would safeguard different aspects of the Latin-American economy. Leaders in Latin America acknowledged the need to change economic policies and promoted the discarding of the free-market model in favor of import substitution (Ca?rdenas et al., 2000).

The applicability of this model remained satisfactory for various Latin-American countries until the 1980s. The import-substitution model focused on the reduction of the dependence of the economy of a country on foreign parties. To achieve this objective, countries in Latin America embarked on various aspects of local production.

The policies on import substitution ensured the state’s participation in aspects such as nationalization and subsidization of industrial and agricultural raw materials. Other measures included increased tax rates and the imposition of protectionist trade policies. The adoption of these measures focused on the protection of local industries and stabilization of economies in various Latin-American countries.

The import-substitution model attracted support among Latin-American countries due to the consideration that most of the industrialized countries employed various aspects of import substitution to attain states that are more self-sufficient.

Another factor that led to the adoption of import substitution in Latin America was the need to address the rising trend of unemployment and poverty largely attributed to the global economic crisis at the time. The Great Depression caused significant economic shocks throughout the world, and declining domestic employment in Latin America.

However, from around the 1980s, import substitution policies began to loss favor among developing countries, including those in Latin America. Policies relating to import-substituting industrialization (ISI) led to losses and debts within Latin America due to the introduction of various programs by the World Bank and other bodies that brought about market liberalization.

Following the 1980s’ debts that caused crises in various Latin-American countries, concerned parties identified the need to privatize the management of previously nationalized entities, and thus began adopting market-oriented economic policies (Solimano & Soto, 2005).

In the 1990s, Latin America witnesses a significant change in the manner of management of capital-intensive sectors such as telecommunication. Financial shortages and the lack of adequate investment in various aspects of technology are some of the crucial factors that instigated the shift towards privatization. The previous model of import substitution forced most Latin-American countries to participate in various aspects of importation.

This promoted the adoption and integration of concepts relating to a market-oriented economy. The effects of the debt crisis of the 1980s created numerous barriers that introduced challenges concerning access to financial markets. This resulted in a trend of declining availability of capital in most of the Latin-American countries. Market-oriented policies provided a framework upon which the government could attract sources of capital.

These policies facilitated the privatization of electricity and telecommunication sectors, which were largely capital intensive. The importance attached to these sectors resulted from the realization of their prospects for expansion due to high demand. Thus, they provided a platform through which the government could achieve its various objectives.

Political reforms in Latin America also influenced the adoption of market-oriented policies. This resulted due to influence by policy makers who promoted new democracies. By the end of the 20th century, most of the countries in Latin America had adopted a framework based on the three principal concepts used to attract private capital (Bethell, 2008).

The first approach was the privatization of key sectors through the public sale of shares or concession contracts that transferred the ownership and administration of various capital-intensive entities. The other approach was the elimination of restrictions that hindered the influence of private capital on public monopolies. This strategy facilitated the generation of investments that availed capital and promoted the operation of various sectors.

The third approach was the drafting of regulations, and the establishment of bodies to ensure that private investors adhere to the set standards and rules. Another factor that led to the adoption of market-oriented reforms in Latin America was the influence by international financial institutions. These institutions gained significant control in the region due to their role as the main source of credit for the capital-deficient Latin America.

The lack of funds for various government projects presented an opportunity for the involvement of financial institutions in technological modernization as an aspect for generating fiscal assets. However, the adoption of market-oriented policies varied among different countries in Latin America. For example, while Chile adopted the reforms on electricity at around 1982, Mexico adopted such reforms in 1999 (Frieden et al., 2000).

In addition, although Costa Rica was successful in its attempts to privatize telecommunication, Argentina failed to achieve similar goals that year. These discrepancies also arose concerning the outcomes of market control. Some countries adopted the monopolistic aspect of market regulation. However, countries such as Mexico adopted the fixed-term monopoly concepts and other aspects that promoted market-controlling reforms.

Although the adoption of various economic reforms in Latin America face challenges, the outcome of the implementation of those reforms positively transformed the region and introduced significant levels of self-sufficiency.

While the economic recession induced the onset of the industrial imposition, negative effects associated with import-substituting industrialization promoted the need for other economic reforms that would guarantee the survival of Latin-American countries in both the local and global economies. Although economic reforms were crucial in Latin America, a narrow scope that focused largely on the local economy introduced hindrances that necessitated the re-evaluation of Latin America’s economic policies in the global perspective.


Bethell, L. (2008). The Cambridge history of Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ca?rdenas, E., Ocampo, J. A., & Thorp, R. (2000). An economic history of twentieth-century Latin America. Houdsmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave ;.

Frieden, J. A., Pastor, M., & Tomz, M. (2000). Modern political economy and Latin America: theory and policy. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

Solimano, A., & Soto, R. (2005). Economic growth in Latin America in the late 20th century: evidence and interpretation. Santiago, Chile: CEPAL, Economic Development Division.

Qatar National Sport Day

Qatar is being promoted as a sporting capital of the Gulf region despite the fact that few students from various colleges in the country participated in the national sporting event held in February this year. The main reason why college students from North Atlantic did not participate in the event was its rather poor organization. As such, not everybody knew about it. The objective of this research paper is to examine ways of increasing the participation of students from the North Atlantic College in the National

Sport Day Programs

Based on current statistics, only 89 out of 457 individuals recruited for a quick survey indicated that they participate in sports (QSD 2012).

This is an indication that even at the national level there is a little emphasis made on sporting activities. The survey also showed that men were more likely to participate in sports than women. With respect to college students, the level of participation during the February Qatar national sports day was low. This implies that students are not aware of the importance of sports.

To increase the number of student participants in the next QNSD, the department of sports at the College of the North Atlantic-Qatar (CNAQ) needs to create awareness of the importance of sports and the national sports day. For example, it should be emphasized that participating in sports reduces the risk of such killer diseases as cancer and diabetes (Canadian Heritage 4).

In addition, students should be informed about the importance and the theme of the Qatar National Sports Day which is “to encourage member of local community to adopt healthy lifestyle and develop physical and mental abilities of community members in light of the 2030 national vision” (QSD 2012).

Moreover, there is a need to create awareness in order to make an emphasis on the QNSD and its importance for individuals and the nation at large. Awareness would encourage more students to participate in the next national sports day.

CNAQ sports department in collaboration with other stakeholders should come up with a program which advocates for sports. This can be borrowed from the Schools Olympic Program (SOP) which advocates for sports as a way of life (SOP 2011).

As a result, this would increase the level of sports participation by CNAQ students. Based on the problem statement, the low level of participation was a result of poor sports management since the college did not organize the event well. This could be resolved by putting in place a sports management team that focuses on Qatar national sports day.

However, emphasis without practical participation is not enough. Therefore, in line with the recommendation by the Canadian Heritage (7), the CNAQ sports management can set up sports policies and programs in the college and also increase the number of physical facilities.

Lessons in physical education should also be organized in such a way that every student may participate in sports (Canadian Heritage 7). Physical education and a supportive sporting environment as recommended by Qatar Olympic Committee (16) have the potential to encourage students to participate in sports.

This would create the desire to participate in sports during national sports days. The Qatar Olympic Committee (38) advocates for a sports culture in Qatar to increase the number of participants at national level. The College of North Atlantic of Qatar should borrow a leaf from the Qatar Olympic Committee to create a sporting culture. A sporting culture has the capacity to raise college interests towards sports.

Works Cited

Canadian Heritage. Sport Participation Strategy 2008 – 2012. 2 Oct. 2012

Qatar Olympic Committee. Sports Sector Strategy (2011-2016). PDF file. 2 Oct. 2012 <>.

QSD. 89% of participants in QOC survey practice sports. 2012. Web. 2 Oct. 2012. <>.

SOP. School Olympic Program. 2011. Web. 2 Oct. 2011.

Cybersecurity Policy

Proper protection of data assembled and recorded in an organization is a core factor for the prosperity and safety of the organization. With the introduction of the Internet in business environment, the technicality of accessing as well as disseminating information has been made easy but generated more challenges at the same time especially with the rise in the number cyber criminals.

This aspect makes the current business environment extremely flimsy. The best way to manage and prevent such incidents is to formulate effective data security strategies. Protected communication helps both the organization and its clients to gain from the resources provided by the Internet.

This understanding underscores the importance of having proper cyber security in an organization. This paper will discuss the procedures of establishing relevant Internet security policies by identifying and describing the procedures, as well as recommending possible solutions to the challenges that arise in the process.

What is a Cyber Security Policy?

To define what cyber security policy it is necessary to explain what the term security policy implies. Security policy is a strategy that lists the most vital assets of an organization and guidelines on how they are to be safeguarded.

The main reason for formulating the document is to inform the employees with a transitory summary of the standard rules of how to handle information assets, illegal, and legal practices, hence involving them in protecting the sensitive documents of the organization.

It is mandatory for any staff member, who intends to access resources that have been classified as vulnerable targets, to refer to the security policies before using the resources (Shoemaker & Conklin, 2011).

A decent security policy should incorporate a number of elements. It must elaborate how confidential documents should be handled and stipulate techniques of maintaining a strong password. Furthermore, it should inform the staff on the steps they should adhere to in case an incursion transpires (Shoemaker & Conklin, 2011). It should also ensure that the Internet connectivity is protected as the company e-mail system.

The major purpose for establishing security guidelines is to set an organization’s data security standard and describe the role of employees in safeguarding the documents of the firm, as well as the significance of a protected communication when using the Internet for transacting business. Therefore, cyber security policies mainly focus on the protection policies that safeguard the organization from malicious attackers via the Internet (Shoemaker & Conklin, 2011).

Procedure for Creating Cyber Security Policy

Risk Assessment

The initial step for creating a security policy demands for the assessment of the organization’s network and all the vital resources, so that suitable actions can be executed well. The process begins with disclosing the organization’s sensitive data resources. This initial stage is referred to as risk assessment.

Risk assessment is the practice of revealing the vital records of the organization as well the role they play. In this stage, the company identifies the information they intend to conceal and individuals to whom this data will be hidden from coupled with the technique the company will apply to safeguard such information (Bayuk, et al., 2012).

For the company to perform an effective risk assessment, those responsible for this process must be conversant with how the organization conducts its activities.

They should also prioritize the data, select the most essential elements, and identify what factors would cause the insecurity of such documents. Moreover, they should identify all the resources that are critical for the company’s performance. Some of these assets may include web servers, application servers, and several projects in progress.

By the end of this stage, the organization should now be aware of the danger it is exposed to by having obsolete software, and the consequences of employees installing file sharing software like E-Donkey, Instant Messaging software, and other entertainment applications provided by anonymous sources.

Risk Management

After completing a proper assessment of the risks vulnerable to the organization, the institution should now formulate ideas on how to control these dangers. This process is achieved through a software awareness program (Bayuk, et al., 2012). The main intention of this program is to describe and highlight the duty of every staff member in protecting the vital assets. The program has two sections, viz. training and awareness.

After identifying the purpose of the program, the organization must then estimate the degree of the staff security awareness, and then determine if some employees should be taken through a computer course to improve their computer skills. Once the organization has successfully mapped out how to educate the staff, it then proceeds to outline the techniques of managing the susceptible threats (Bayuk, et al., 2012).

System Access

The employees must have adequate knowledge on how they can conceal their passwords from outsiders. Password is particularly critical because it determines the level of protection of any system. The staff must know that their User IDs should never be revealed to anyone including the executives and members of the Information Security Office. This suggests that, during the implementation of the policy, no one can threaten the staff to disclose the password.

Moreover, the password should not be written on any notice board or white board; instead, staff must memorize it to prevent access of the password in case of a break-in. The passwords must be strong enough such that no cracking software can recover them. A strong password has a minimum of seven characters.

The characters are a combination of lower and uppercase letters, figures, and symbols like punctuation marks. It is also wrong for all computers to use a single password for several applications because if the password is retrievable, then all the other computers would be affected (Muir & Criddle, 2011).

Web Browsing

Web browsing can have detrimental effects on the entire company if not handled discreetly. While surfing on the web, the staff can easily access inimical scripts that once downloaded; they can damage the computer. This scenario can happen simply because the staff member used an invalid web browser.

The security policy should inform the staff about the prohibited and legal sites. For instance, employees must know that Java as well as Active X should always be disabled when browsing. The policy should underscore the fact that pornographic and betting sites should never be accessed under any circumstance. Furthermore, the staff must know that any website that causes flooding to the network should be avoided.

E-mail and Instant Messaging

Unfortunately, one of the most vulnerable communication channels to malicious attackers is the e-mail system, because it is always revealed to everyone, ranging from potential clients to potential attackers. Therefore, a company must install verified malicious code security software for every mail gateways (Furnell & Downland, 2010). This software senses and removes most popular perilous files as well as intimidating messages.

The security policies should outline standard e-mail practices. Before reading any attachments received via e-mail, they have to be scanned and the sender contacted to verify the security of the attachment. The policy should prohibit the running of programs received as attachments. The organization’s e-mail accounts should never be used for communication in web forums (Furnell & Downland, 2010).

Furthermore, no staff member should be permitted to use the e-mail account to transact a personal business. Information Security Officer should always be consulted before accessing chain letters or sending any of the organization’s details to a stranger. A proper observation of such policies can protect the company from cyber theft.

Moreover, some workers use Instant Messaging (IM) to socialize with the outside world unaware of the dangers they are exposed to in the process. One can easily be exploited by simply using an outdated buggy version. The staff should always be extremely discreet when sharing information via IM irrespective of the relationship between the parties involved for the individual on the outside may intend to distribute some dangerous Trojans (Furnell & Downland, 2010).

Virus Protection

Trojans have a damaging effect on a company’s data system. When establishing an Internet security policy, the organization must ensure that it informs the staff of the dangers that viruses cause to a computer coupled with how they can identify and eliminate a virus that infects the data system. Moreover, the policy should explain the type of antivirus the organization uses as well as how often it will be updated (Gregory, 2011).

Incident Management

The security policy should outline the recommended Internet practices. Furthermore, the organization should formulate rules to ensure effective supervision of employees as they go online (Muir & Criddle, 2011). There should be clear procedures to be followed when disciplining employees who contravene the rules.

Notably, there should be clear guidelines to observe in the event that there is an intrusion into the sensitive information. The staff must know the person tasked with the duty of handling such intrusion in a bid to reduce the extent that an infiltration may have to the company.

Revision of the Policy

After the assessing the risks, setting the management policies and actions to be taken against workers who violate the policies, the organization then proceed to the stage of revision. This stage is a critical step because it helps in rectifying any existing mistakes so that the policy may be durable. The organization must assess a number of factors before launching the security policy.

The cyber security policy should highlight the role of every worker in guarding the sensitive and confidential records to minimize incidents of misunderstanding.

The policy must state what is under protection and why there is a need to secure it. The document must be brief, precise, and not more than two pages. Furthermore, the organization must disclose why it is creating the security policy, whether it is for the entire company or just a single department. It should convince the employees why maintaining security will benefit both the organization and the workers. Once these matters are addressed, the organization can go ahead and implement the policy.

Challenges and Solutions of Formulating and Implementing a Cyber Security Policy

Establishing a cyber-security policy is always hectic considering the challenges that the company has to face throughout the process. Some Information Security Officers may be incompetent to the extent of establishing an outdated security policy.

The workers may also decide not to cooperate with the administration in the formulation of policies. Furthermore, during the implementation of security policies, there may be unceasing conflict with the employees because of their illiteracy on issues pertaining to information security. The organization may also have inadequate finances to fund the implementation of the policy, for instance purchasing and updating antivirus software.

If administrators want to create and execute a successful security policy, they must be ready to overcome these barriers. The executives should always consult workers when formulating such rules. They should also seek assistance from computer experts to have standard security policy.

The workers should be taken through a computer course so that they can detect and handle problems that might arise when using the Internet. Moreover, the organization should include information security as a matter for deliberation when drawing their budget in a bid to prevent cases of lack of finance throughout the process of safeguarding the critical documents.


The prosperity and safety of any organization relies on how much safe its information is kept and maintained. Data security begins with the creation of a security policy, which also includes cyber safety. The security policy should be integrated to describe what is permitted as well as what is illegal.

Though there may be challenges in the implementation process of the policies, managers must be committed to monitoring the Internet risks and training the workers on security issues as well as disciplining those who are found guilty of violating any of the rules. New technological developments and malicious attackers acquire new ideas daily; therefore, organizations must be ready to adjust to these dynamics to secure their records from the outside world.


Bayuk, L., Healey, J., Rohmeyer, P., Sachs, M., Schmidt, J., &Weiss, J. (2012). Cyber Security Policy Guidebook. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Furnell, S., & Downland, P. (2010). E-mail Security: A Pocket Guide. United Kingdom, UK: IT Governance Ltd.

Gregory, P. (2011). Computer Viruses for Dummies. Indiana: John Wiley & Sons.

Muir, N., & Criddle, L. (2011). Using the Internet Safely For Seniors for Dummies. Indiana: John Wiley & Sons.

Shoemaker, D., & Conklin, W. A. (2011). Cybersecurity: The Essential Body of Knowledge. Massachusetts: Cengage Learning.

Foreign Equity Restriction

Foreign Equity Restriction are constrains on the degree of ownership and control, referred to as equity in company law and finance, which foreigners of a country are permitted to control (Emery et al, 2007).

Such restrictions are strictly adhered to and are imposed in two different ways. The first way is through legislation. Restrictions through legislation are initiated by the government and enacted by the law making arm of the government. Such restrictions are usually aimed at or founded on the principles and provisions of public interest.

Therefore, where the country’s government has enough reason to suspect that the unrestricted investment by foreigners is against national interest, it will institute the restrictions. The second way in which the restrictions can be put in place is by the decisions of the individual companies. This paper seeks to explain the concept of foreign equity restrictions and the reasons as to why countries and companies adopt such restrictions.


The rationale behind the existence of a firm is to maximize the wealth of its shareholders. This objective, which has since replaced the traditional goal of profit maximization, calls for a number of strategies with regard to the manner in which shares are sold. Domestic companies and organizations maximize net worth of the business through price discrimination when it comes to selling their shares to both foreigners and locals.

An increase in the net value of the business translates to an improvement in the wealth status of the owners. The discriminatory pricing practices are applicable where and when the demand variable for local shares varies between local and non-citizen investors (Emery et al, 2007). The company may opt to sell the shares at different prices so as to achieve stability in control.

One of the major reasons why this kind of discrimination may be practiced is the need to protect the autonomy of the local industries. Since the decisions in the limited companies are made by a majority of the shareholders, it is important that the local shareholders outnumber the foreign shareholders so that the organization can achieve the status of a self-determining entity (Eun & Resnick, 2007).

Self-determination is vital when it comes to making strategic decisions. A company that has excessive foreign control will be controlled by the non-citizens who will make decisions that suit their interest. There is a possibility that the interests of the foreigners may not be the same interests of the locals following differentials in the rates of taxation.

A country’s government may also opt to come up with these restrictions for political reasons. The most potent illustration to this point is a recent case where a Dubai company intended to buy an American organization dealing in shipping and port services. The American leaders protested the move bitterly citing threats of terrorism as the major reason.

While American laws do not restrict such transactions, the political factor ended the transaction pre-maturely. Political factors are used in the name of national defense. The politicians may cite such concerns as national security to bar a competing economic force from investing in their territory (Emery et al, 2007).

This concept of foreign equity restrictions is most prominent in Switzerland, Japan and Brazil. In Switzerland, the restrictions are enacted and enforced by the individual companies with an aim of preventing dilution of power and control of the locals. This is done to encourage domestic governance of the companies (Eun & Resnick, 2007).

In Japan, the restrictions are put in place by the law. This is done for various reasons; among them national security and defense. In Brazil, the most prominent sugar businesses that are mostly run by families influence the government to institute such restrictions. The United States of America practices selective restriction such as restrictions on foreign acquisition of media services controlled by the government.


Emery, D.R, Finnerty, J.D., & Stowe, J.D. (2007). Corporate Financial Management (3rd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson-Prentice Hall.

Eun, C.S., & Resnick, B.G. (2007). International Financial Management (4th Ed.).New York: McGraw-Hill.

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