Ethnic studies and emigration

Emigration can be defined as the act of leaving one’s country of origin and settling somewhere else, preferably in another country. There are many international factors for migration flows. The most powerful factors are economic pressures, social networks and connections between migrants sending and receiving countries, immigrant admissions and immigration control policies, cultural perceptions of people in developing countries about immigration and First World immigrant receiving countries.

However, economic pressures and cultural perceptions of people in developing countries about immigration and First world immigrant receiving countries are more powerful factors than the others.

Economic pressure has led to the highest number of immigrants, especially from the developing countries to developed countries. This is because third world countries are way behind in economic development compared to the developed countries. This wide disparity between the two worlds has made many people from developing countries migrate to the developed countries.

There is a wide unemployment rate in the developing countries. With the high rate of industrialization in developed countries like the United States, most people in developing countries yearn to migrate there. These countries also offer higher pay, better job conditions and employees welfare.

This is in contrast to most African countries where there is underemployment and employee welfare is not guaranteed. Entrepreneurship opportunities are also vast in developed countries. The fast rate of economic growth in these countries presents a better market, wider opportunities for investment and also easier ways of obtaining capital.

There are also oppressive investment policies in developing countries, for example Zimbabwe, which has monopolized trade with its citizens. This makes it difficult to invest and even do business in such a country. The economy is also failing, a situation evident in many developing countries. Therefore, most of their people opt to migrate and to invest in foreign nations where there is guaranteed economic development and returns.

Another powerful factor is the perception of the people from developing countries on developed countries. Acculturation has resulted from televised better lifestyles from the west. Third world populations have therefore aped these cultures and believe that the westerners have better lifestyles, for example houses, cars, education systems, dressing, eating habits and others.

Western cultures have pulled Africans and Asians to Europe and America. For instance, most wealthy Kenyans have sent their children to schools in developed countries and believe that it is of better quality. Others have fully migrated to these nations in order to become part of these western cultures. Others believe that they will be wealthier if they migrate to these countries since there is instant wealth there, for example during the gold rush of California.

There is a great infringement of cultural and political freedom in developed countries, for example, persecutions on sex and sex orientation where some countries like Zimbabwe and Arab countries kill homosexual and lesbians.

Islamic countries have also forced their people to migrate due to intolerance to other religions. Other developed countries have communities that believe in occasional cultural warfare as a system of ethnic cleansing hence their people opt to migrate, for example the Merire people of Ethiopia. This has made the elites from these nations to migrate in search of safer places to settle.

In conclusion, economic pressure and cultural perceptions of developing countries on developed countries are the most powerful factors for emigration. Most people migrate to acquire employment, better pay, better investment policies and better entrepreneurial environment as others run away from unstable economies.

Others have a perception that there is a better lifestyle in developed countries. They believe that the westerners have better living standards, better dressing codes, better eating habits, better family life and better technology. This has made many people migrate to the western nations. Children are also made to believe in this perception and most of them target at immigrating to these nations one day.

Immigration Admissions and Control Policies

The United States should strengthen its immigration policy to afford all immigrants security, equal employment opportunities, and social services. The policy should allow for documenting all legal and illegal immigrants in the United States. During documentation and subsequent action, special considerations should be given to illegal women and girls, as they are more vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. The vices spoil our immigration heritage.

The United States lead other nations in development, research, and technology because of superior human resources and infrastructure. In this regard, the Obama administration should increase the number of work-based immigration visas to immigrants. These visas should be given to specialists and highly skilled individuals wishing to stay in America.

They should be given permanent visas so that they can effectively contribute to the development of the United States. Specialists and skilled workers contribute to innovation of crucial technologies that save the country huge costs by increasing efficiency and reducing the need for manual labor. The benefits outweigh the costs hence the policy should strengthen this work visas.

Temporary work visas should be given to unskilled immigrant workers, wishing to work in the country. Unskilled workers contribute to the development of the country as Americans shun certain jobs. The policy should make available more temporary-work-visas to immigrants. This should neutralize the market forces that fuel illegal migration to fill unskilled job demands.

Legal and illegal immigrants contribute millions of dollars to the nation’s economy through reduced production costs, and increased production. The immigration work policy should strengthen the country’s efforts in reducing the number of illegal immigrants entering the country rather than deport the immigrants already in the country.

Immigration to the United States remains attractive to many foreigners because great difference exists between America and other countries. Tough immigration laws restrict the free movement of immigrants to the United States but these laws do little to stop the trend.

Immediate countries bordering the United States have the greatest number of legal and illegal immigrants coming into the United States yearly.

The policy should address the great differences existing with its neighbors. Allowing more legal migration can also stem the flow of illegal migrants, as the jobs they come to seek may be unavailable. Organized crime gangs facilitate illegal migration by offering them transport and safe houses. The government should crack on these gangs to stop illegal immigration across the porous borders.

The policy should address the porous borders allowing entry of illegal migrants. Boarder surveillance should be more stringent. If the government decides to offer more immigration visas to solve this problem, there needs to be strict enforcement of illegal migration hiring in the United States as well as strict boarder monitoring to stop the flow.

There exists negative public opinion towards immigrants in America especially during economic downturns. Many people have not recognized the contribution of illegal migrants to the economy and thus their opinions are biased. The media and ignorant politicians spread these false hoods.

The policy should aim at sensitizing the public on the benefits of legal migrants to the country. Legal immigrants should be taxed according to the country laws to avoid discrimination. Illegal migration hiring should however be discouraged through all possible means.

Ethnics Studies

Immigration is the act of human beings or animals moving and settling in a nation or region to which they are not native. Normally, immigration is facilitated by factors such as temperature changes, breeding, economic and political pressures, family re-unification, natural calamities, poverty or voluntary wish to change one’s abode.

The rise of the number of immigrants poses a great problem to policy makers in any given country. The US has for example had the number of illegal immigrants increase from 5 to 12 million over a period of 10 years. The effects of illegal immigration have led to a rising public concern, with regard to salaries, public finances and potential security threats. This paper focuses on the analysis of the public opinion concerning immigration in the US and its various effects.

In spite of the disparity of opinions in the congress, there is a strong agreement that if the US could simply minimize the rate of illegal immigration in the country, either by converting them into lawful residents or dissuading them at the border, the country’s economic standards would be improved. According to politicians, an increase in the number of illegal immigrants is highly likely to destabilize the law of the land, as well as disrupt the government’s planning and implementation of the labor market laws.

Critics argue that the massive inflow of labor from other countries is a threat to the low learned Americans. However, average research has shown that immigrants are less schooled than native-born Americans. Another alarming issue is that an increase in the number of illegal immigrants from Mexico and other countries exposes the US to terror attacks.

Illegal immigration provides the US industries and merchants with the types of laborers they want during peak labor demand seasons. The immigrants from the neighboring states provide cheap labor for the industries. For instance, the economic downturn in Mexico over recent years has facilitated the influx of immigrants into the US. This has provided the US with a majority of unskilled labor force to work in the industries.

Moreover, rapid advances in new technology have increased demand for highly skilled labor. With the increased implementation of Information Technology in many institutions, there is a high demand for IT professionals and expert technicians. Despite the fact that the USA has a large number of graduates from the various fields, many people from different parts of the country continue to move into the US to meet of increased demand for IT experts.

The issuance of green cards and momentary visas for persons willing to work in the US has made it possible for such experts to move into the country. However, due to the long queues and legal procedures in the immigration department, many people are forced to enter the country illegally.

In general, immigration helps in increasing America’s revenue. This mainly occurs as the immigrants continue to use the country’s local resources such as schools, hospitals, financial institutions and means of transport and communication.While the aggregate impacts of illegal immigration are small, the intensity of the public debate about the economic impacts of immigration is not a reflection of its aggregate consequences.

Businesses have been found to be the greatest benefactors of immigration, a major reason why a large number of business owners believe that the positive effects of illegal immigration outweigh the negative ones.

Conclusively, illegal immigration should not be viewed only on the negative side, but also in terms of its positive implications to the economy. The public should not only condemn the states that are more anti-immigrant, but should also call for all facilitating stakeholders, such as industries and businesses, to fight illegal immigration.

Pros and Cons of Immigration for the Immigrants

Thousands of immigrants from developing nations migrate to the United States hoping to secure jobs and lead better lives. Immigrants in the United States enjoy numerous economic benefits; nevertheless, they also suffer from a number of socioeconomic challenges. This paper will focus on the pros and cons of immigration to the United States.

Most of the immigrants take the jobs that the Americans dismiss as poorly paid. Despite the nature of the jobs, immigrants get income from the jobs thus raising their living standards.

One of the factors that makes people migrate is the desire for a better life. Hence, immigrants enjoy better living standards in the United States relative to their home countries. Most of the immigrants work in the middle and semi-skilled sectors. Consequently, they are assured of getting jobs easily since a number of new jobs keep on emerging in these sectors.

The United States has a welfare system that caters for all people regardless of their background. Hence, all the immigrants enjoy health and education services at subsidized rates. This aspect in return cuts down on the cost of living. Apart from employment, numerous immigrants have started their own businesses in the country.

Currently, Asians and Hispanics have established businesses across the United States. Some of these businesses even do better when compared to those owned by the Americans. The opportunity to invest in business helps the immigrants enhance their living standards.

In spite of the economic benefits enjoyed by the immigrants in the United States, the immigrants face a stiff discrimination from the Americans. The Americans blame the immigrants for the seemingly soaring unemployment rates experienced in the country. In addition, increase in the number of immigrants entering the country leads to cheap labor.

Most of the immigrants are willing to work for whichever amount of money as long as they get jobs in America; hence, they are willing to take the first job that comes their way. Consequently, some American employers take this opportunity to exploit the immigrants. For instance, such employers hire immigrants at lower wages instead of Americans who ask for higher wages.

Immigrants in the United States face economic insecurity. In spite of the fact that most immigrants work in middle and semi-skilled jobs, the rate of job loss is higher amongst the immigrants than among the Americans. During the economic recess, many immigrants in the United States lost their jobs as companies embarked on cost cutting strategies.

Job insecurity among the immigrants is high. In addition, most of the immigrants do not understand the employment policies of the United States. Hence, they do not realize when their employers violate their employment rights. Therefore, as aforementioned, some employers take this advantage to exploit immigrants and dismiss them whenever they do not require their services.

Language barrier and literacy level inhibit the long-term socioeconomic mobility of the immigrants. Most of the immigrants do not understand English; hence, it is hard for them to interact and work freely with the Americans. Besides, as most of the immigrants are semi-illiterate, it is hard for them to secure jobs in the formal sector.

Even though the immigrants enjoy some economic benefits in the United States, they are yet to overcome the numerous negative socioeconomic challenges that affect them. Discrimination and job insecurity are still high in the country; hence, it is hard for immigrants to acquire and retain stable jobs.

When the World Is Falling Apart: Blazing the Trail into a Brand New World

In the early years of the XX century, when the world was pretty fed up with paying the homage to the Victorian era and was yet not quite sure what exactly can replace the sweet and innocent years of the Charles Dickens epoch and his oeuvre, the advent of Modernism literally changed everything.

The entire world seemed to be seized by the gold rush – or, to be more precise, the rush for new and unique means of self-expression in art and literature. A truly Golden Age of British poetry and its complete rebirth, the Modernist movement in the British poetry offered a number of provocative questions to solve.

However, it would be a mistake to think that the entire nature of the Modern poetry was aimed solely at destruction of the existing principles and mocking the downtrodden morals.

Though the intent was rather aggressive and had a lot to deal with the World War I, which made the entire world shudder and, therefore, set the whole generation into a very specific mood for the rest of their lives, making them feel the world around them collapsing, the Movement had quite noble aims: “Collectively, they were said to represent English poetry and even the contemporary English soul” (Perkins, 1987, 419).

When speaking of Modern Movement, one will necessarily recall the Post-Modern one as well. However, there is a considerable gap between the two.

Indeed, if considering the two a bit closer, one can see distinctly that, while Post-Modern poets were trying to find new means of expressing their feelings about the changes in the society, the Modern poets, especially Dadaists, considered the existing reality the lowest common denominator of life and, therefore, deliberately chose the most grotesque and unappealing means to depict the despised and nonsensical universe (Cook, 2008).

There can be no possible doubt that the World War I had huge impact on people’s perception of the world and, therefore, on the development of Modernism. One of the cruelest experiences in the history of the humankind, the bloodbath of the WWI added to the misanthropic vision of the Modernist world. Seeing their own inability to act as basic human beings, people were completely desperate and disgusted, which Modernist poetry reflected.

However, the world of Modernists did not collapse at once – on the contrary, the process of rotting was quite time-taking, which allowed to feel the essence of human vulgarity. Thus, the loss of hope was the first stage of the Modernist Movement.

Then came the loss of faith. Observing incredible cruelty, people were unable to understand how God can allow such awful things to happen, which finally led to the conclusion that there was no God. Forced to be Atheists, Modernist poets had literally nothing to lose.

Nevertheless, it was not only the World War that had a great impact on the Modern poetry. Along with the rest of the factors, the rapid development of science also played its part in the way people of the early XX century saw the world. With all the innovations and breakthroughs, especially in the military sphere, science took care of people’s nightmares for the rest of the century.

In addition, the development of the economical state of the world’s major countries also contributed to shaping Modernist perception of reality. With the United States facing the threat of the Great Depression, and the rest of the countries being devastated by the results of the World War I, the state of affairs left much to be desired, and poverty was as common as catching a cold. Naturally, these factors shaped Modernist movement a lot.

All in all, the world at the threshold of a new century was completely devastated and ruined to the core, which the Modernist poetry reflected quite well. It is quite peculiar that the Modern poetry captures the very idea of the loneliness which people felt during the bloodbath of the WWI, as well as the pessimism about the future and the notorious question on whether there actually is such thing as future of the people who have seen the horrors for the World War.

Thus, it is obvious that the Modern British poetry did offer a lot of food for thoughts and was literally a major breakthrough, not only for Britain, but also for the entire world. Allowing poets to create a new universe where the reality seemed even more grotesque and all the vices of the humankind could be crucified.

Therefore, Modern British poetry was basically a perfect coping mechanism for the people of the early XX century to put up with the reality. Reading Modern poems, one did not forget about the reality, but was able to laugh it off and shake it off for a little while. A shelter for the ones who tried to escape the brutal reality, Modern British poetry was a short yet great relief – and, though time flies, it still remains one of the most outstanding features of the epoch.

Reference List

Cook A. S. (2008). Forces in Modern and Postmodern poetry. Bern: Peter Lang.

Perkins, D. (1987). A history of Modern poetry: Modernism and after. Cambridge,

MA: Harvard University Press.

Principles of Marketing

Marketing has evolved with the evolving technologies in the world. The emerging technologies have completely changed the marketing processes in the current world. Freeman (2010) observes that for a long time, marketing was considered an operational activity and it was a unit under the production department. This was the time when most firms employed the production strategy. There was a general belief that once a product is availed in the market, consumers would have no otherwise but to buy it.

This notion was held for a long time. Because there was minimal competition in the market, these firms managed to operate with this policy for long. However, the emerging technologies have created a global village where an individual could move from one end of the earth to the other within a very short time. Improved means of communication is another aspect that has changed marketing practices.

The invention of telephones was a major milestone in making the world a global village. A person in New York would easily communicate with another in Riyadh or Melbourne in real time. As communication was enhanced, people became more knowledgeable and therefore more demanding.

Current Marketing Situation

It is always very important that before introducing a product to the market, care be taken to ensure that there is a deep understanding of the market situation. Market situation refers to the forces that dictate the condition of the market. They are the forces that would determine if a given product would be acceptable in the market.

Of concern would be the acceptability of the product in the market, the size of the market and its sustainability. In order to elaborate on these factors, a number of analyses would be used in this research. In this case, we would discuss the introduction of a new brand of water, hereinafter referred to as Clearwaters.

Market Description

Bottled water is one of the new products in the Saudi markets. This product was considered a free product and many people relied on tap water as the preferred clean water for drinking. However, this changed with time. Bottled water has come out strongly as one of the beverages that are considered important goods. Because of the ease to carry it and the fact that it is believed to have nutrients, there has been a consistent increase in the size of the market for this product.

The bottled water market has consistently been eating up the market share of other carbonated drinks such as the cola products. Health experts have been raising concerns over the ingredients of the cola products and the possible effect they might have on consumers. As such, those individuals who are health conscious have considered taking bottled water instead of the carbonated drinks.

This market is relatively young, especially in the Saudi market. However, it has experienced a massive growth over the past few years. Some of the market leaders in the beverage market such as the Coca Cola Company have come up with their own brand of water to help cushion them against the effect of the mass movement of customers from carbonated drinks to bottled water.

This brand is relatively strong in the market and its growth has been consistent. Other firms, some of which are locally owned, have come up with their own brands of water as well. They are keen to take their own share of the market. Clearwaters, being a new product in this market, would find an established market with a strong competition that must be countered if the product were to survive a possible elimination.

Product Review

Clearwaters is new in this industry. It is made of pure drinking water, just like other bottled water brands in this industry. This product is meant for human consumption and is sold in bottles of varying sizes, ranging from 300 milliliters to twenty liters. Five, ten and twenty liter-bottles are meant for home use while the three milliliter to one liter bottles target individuals who need water while on a journey or while on such practices as gym and roadwork.

The product is new but in a considerably old market. Its brand is barely known and the marketers of this product have a huge responsibility of ensuring that this product penetrates the market. Although the products target the public, five, ten and twenty liters are targeted at middle-class families, who want clean bottled water for home use. The three hundred milliliters, five hundred milliliters, and one-liter bottles have youths as their targets.

Competitive Review

The market competition is undoubtedly immense. As stated above, there are giant international firms that have established their position in the market. These firms, as Majer (2011) notes, have strong brands that have gained acceptance in the local market.

The biggest challenge is the fact that these firms have developed pools of loyal customers who may not easily be withdrawn by such new brands as Clearwaters. There is a free market entry to firms trading in this product and this would mean that Clearwaters should be ready for new competition from other foreign firms that may want to enter the market.

Although the competitors in this particular market have not considered using pricing as a strategy of competition, there are signs indicating that this is a possibility, especially if large firms in this industry consider small industry players as a threat. Thos would mean that elimination of small firms is the only option for survival. Clearwaters must therefore develop clear marketing strategies that would make it unique in the market.

Channels and Logistics Review

Channels of distribution are some of the most important factors that the management team must consider. Given that this is a new firm and that the market is highly competitive, logistics are some of the factors that can help this firm to be seen as unique in this market.

Clearwaters’ products would be delivered to various retail outlets in Riyadh city by use of two tracks. The management would ensure that this product is ever available in all the major stores within this city. The channel would simply be from the manufacturer to the retailers who would finally sell the products to the customers.

SWOT Analysis

The strength of this project depends on various factors. One of the major strengths of this project is its brand name (Charantimath. (2006). As Stated above, the brand, Clearwaters, is relatively new in the market. However, the name is expected to attract the Muslim faithful, who make the majority of the market share. This project also has considerable financial strength. As such, this project is in a position to implement its strategies, including those of research and extension. The project is also expected to operate in various cities outside Riyadh. As such, it would be able to balance its production. When one section of its market would be experiencing economic growth, the other section would be facing recession.

Despite the above strengths, the project it has some weaknesses, a fact that might see some of its competitors such as Dasani eat up a section of its market share. Freeman (2010) says that one of the weaknesses that many environmentalists have repeatedly talked about regarding all the firms selling water in plastic bottles, is environmental degradation.

The plastic bottles that this firm uses in packing its drinks are causing havoc to the environment. It is apparent that this firm is yet to develop a solution to this problem because according to the program, it is yet to replace the plastic bottles with better alternatives.

Within the area of operation, some opportunities that can make the firm experience massive growth in its market share exist. Dasani has exploited a vacuum that existed in many countries in the world, especially in the developing countries. Majer (2011) says that there was no competition for this firm in the overseas markets and this company was able to make the most out of its sales. However, with the introduction of new brands such as Clearwaters, Dasani would be under threat.

Clearwaters would find it easy to change with the changing technologies because of its small size than would Dasani. Technological advancements will also enable the firm to conduct trade much easily due to improved means of communication and transport means. The economic boom that Saudi Arabia experienced following the improved oil prices in the world market is another opportunity that can help this firm to expand its market.

The threats that this product has had to deal with include competition. The market has gotten increasingly competitive. Freeman (2010) notes that many firms like Coca Cola have come up with products, which are close substitutes of the product. They have taken large market share in the country.

Security concerns in some parts of the city are another threat that this firm has had to deal with. When there is an internal strife, like the one experienced in Egypt and Libya in the recent past, this firm would lose millions of dollars due to the destruction of its assert. During such periods, the firm would also lose the profits they get from the region, while yet they will have to pay the employees. This would hurt the firm financially.

Objectives and issues

This is a new product. The issue here is to ensure that this product is successfully introduced into the existing market, and that it gets acceptance from the customers in this region. The objective of this move is to ensure that the firm manages to capture substantial market share that would make it sustainable in an increasingly competitive market.

Clearwaters should come out as a strong brand in the bottled water industry. The brand should not only attract positive sales in the market, but also a strong base of loyal customers who would help in ensuring that this firm is sustainable.


Product positioning is always very important. In various occasions, firms would try to position their products in the market as the best. In this case, Clearwaters would be positioned as ‘the end of thirst’. In this context, thirsty customers should consider going for Clearwaters, because in its presence, thirst would end. With proposition is expected to attract travelers who pass by the retail outlets to look for beverages that would help quench their thirst.

Product Strategy

This product is perfectly similar to other products sold by other market competitors. However much the advertisement may be devised to make it appear different, the fact remains that the product is similar to those of other competitors. Therefore, a strategy that would help make it unique must exist. In this regard, the packaging of this product would be made a little unique from others in the market. The packages of this product targeting the youths would have graphics that would be attractive to them. The aim of this is to ensure the product speaks out to the customers the moment customers’ glance at them.

Pricing Strategy

Pricing is one of the most challenging tasks when introducing a new product in the market. When the price is set higher than the average market, customers would most likely ignore the product and go for their traditional products. When the product is priced lower than the market price, customers may dismiss it as a product of poor quality and therefore it may be ignored. Therefore, most firms would prefer setting the price of the product to be at par with the market price of other products.

The rationale is that in the process of choosing for the best brand, given that the prices are the same, customers may consider taking the new brand to test its viability. This firm would employ this strategy. It would avoid setting the price below the market average for this may provoke price wars (Freeman, 2010). Because it is a new firm, it may not be in a position to withstand such a competition.

Distribution Strategy

This product is intended to be distributed in all the major stores in Riyadh. The product will have to capture this market before moving to other cities in this country. The choice of Riyadh was because it has the biggest market for this product and therefore more promising than other markets.

Moreover, with the fact that there is huge competition in this city, a success in this market would mean that it would be easy to reach out to other markets. As stated above, the track would move this product to all the mail retail outlets in the country. The strategy that would be used would be very simply: the product should never run out of stock in all the selected stores

Marketing Communication Strategy

Manufacturing and availing products to the market is not enough if there is a considerable level of competition in the market. There would be need to ensure that the market understands that the product is available and that it offers superior value.

Clearwaters would therefore be advertised in the main channels of communication within the target market. The marketing department would have to use the mass media like the dailies, the radio and television stations to inform the market that this product is available. This department would also need to ensure that the youths who frequent the social media are also reached.

This should be done using such social media as Facebook, Tweeter, and YouTube. The communication that goes to the public should be reviewed carefully. It would be important to ensure that there is no miscommunication, or irrelevant information reaching out to the public. This may damage the reputation of the firm and hinder its move to capture more customers in this market.

Marketing Research

According to Majer (2011), there has been a massive change in marketing over the recent past. Currently, businesses have been forced to take an inward-out approach to marketing. This would mean that a firm would start by understanding what the market expects of them.

After developing this understanding, the firm would then need to ensure that it develops products that will meet the demands of the market. In order to ensure that this is possible, there would be need for research into the market. Market research is always very important because creates understanding of the market.

Clearwaters will have to be developed as a strong brand in this market. In this regard, it would be important that the management conduct the research among the target market to get to understand their expectation of the bottled water that is sold in the retail outlets.

The data from this research should be analyzed, and compounded with the secondary sources of information like the business journals, an informed decision should be made of the approach that this firm should take in bringing this new product to the market. This way, it will gain a competitive edge over the existing firms because it shall have implemented the recommendations from the research.


Charantimath (2006) says that ideas will always remain ideas unless they are implemented. Good ideas can be turned into wonderful projects if the concerned parties make concerted effort to ensure that it is implemented. The plans for the introduction of this product will have to be implemented by all the concerned members of the project. After the idea has undergone all the stages until there is an inception of a product, a marketer would be expected to take over.

In this case, the first step would be market testing. A sample of the product would be taken to the market to determine its viability. If the product is confirmed to be viable in the market, the production department would then be instructed to produce the product in mass and then there will be commercialization of the product. In this case, Clearwaters will be taken to various retail outlets in the city.

The marketing department will also develop an awareness campaign of the product within this particular city. Most importantly during the implementation process, the team would ensure that all the planned activities are carried out as per the plan with no deviations. The allocation of funds would be based on various factors, such as the importance of the project, its profitability and impact it would have on the firm.


The budget for this project would be based on the area of coverage. For a start, this project is expected to cover Riyadh city. However, it would be rolled out to other cities later if it proves successful in this region. The budget for this project would be categorized into various sections, which include research, manufacturing, logistics, advertising, and others. Based on the percentage, the above categories should be allocated funds as follows.

Research- 8%
Logistics- 11%
Advertising- 12%
Others- 9

The above budgetary allocations may be altered as per the need of the organization, but they should not be drastically shifted from the estimates provided.


It is important that the management ensure that the program would flow smoothly as planned. The control of the entire process would be in the hands of the top management of the project. They have the responsibility to ensure that there is a proper budgetary allocation and that every task is done by the intended persons and within the scheduled time.

The top management should be responsible for assigning each member of the team specific roles that would help in ensuring that the overall objective of the firm is achieved. Monitoring is also part of control and must be undertaken by the management unit.


Charantimath. (2006).Total Quality Management. New Delhi: Pearson Education.

Freeman, E. (2010). Ethical leadership practices. KCA Journal of Business Management, 2(1): 1-14.

Freeman, E. (2010). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Majer, C. (2011). The silent killers of productivity and profit. T+D, 65(2), 62

Organizational Vulnerability Assessment

The cyberspace has witnessed a criminal insurrection in the past few years. Nowadays, cyber criminals use elementary concepts to conduct deceptive online transactions.

What’s more, organizations face an extremely complicated task of developing a safe network system. One of the most notable dissimilarities from conventional engineering speciality is the prevalence of creative and expert hackers who attack such systems. There are numerous factors that enhance the vulnerability of a secured network system. For example, the escalating computer and software connectivity is one such factor.

The pressure to distribute systems via internet presents additional threats since cyber criminals can instigate online attacks easily. In addition, although the prevalence of program extensibility provides flexible software for novel business requirements, it also creates avenues for superfluous malevolent extensions (Netland, 2008, p. 3).

Risk Analysis and Mitigation

Vulnerability refers to a system bug or a design error whereas a threat refers to a skilled antagonist who aspires to take advantage of vulnerability within a network system (Netland, 2008, p. 16). The following sections discuss various threats and vulnerabilities prevalent within network systems.

Man-in-the-Middle Attack

This is a form of communication attack where the hacker relays bogus messages to the operator. Usually, the hacker sends messages to the system operator signifying a system change. When the system operator tries to rectify the problem by following the laid-out procedures, the hacker seizes this opportunity and attacks the system.

The man-in-the-middle attack is also known as integrity attack since the actions of the system operators are based on the integrity of the data. However, man-in-the-middle attack is a complex cyber crime since the attacker must possess exceptional skills and collect a lot of information passing through the network to be able to launch an attack (Yu-Lun et al, 2009, p. 69).

Terminal-to-Terminal Attacks

When students access university website via mobile terminals, hackers can launch their attacks using a direct wireless connection through a wireless access point. In addition, hackers can use the wired infrastructure to launch attacks on an open wireless network. For instance, hackers can install a rogue access point that operates malevolent software.

Therefore, mobile terminals are extremely susceptible to this attack if they lack updated antivirus software as well as firewalls. It is worthy to note that malicious access points can result in grave security breach since they bestow hackers with authenticated access to information asset of the university (Netland, 2008, p. 16). Thus, it is important that malicious access points are identified and eliminated.

Threats on Local Networks

Cyber criminals usually employ spoofing attacks to gain access to information on the wired infrastructure. This happens when the network perimeter authentication is removed from the local network systems. In many cases, an attacker unlawfully poses as another person to access confidential data on the network. For example, when nonessential data are accessible without authentication, hackers are able to launch bogus services (i.e. fake research papers or phony lecture notes).

Nonetheless, this vulnerability can be alleviated by mounting firewalls and antivirus software on the university servers. In addition, the IT staff should run auditing programs to monitor activities of online users. Audit logs should also be reassessed on a regular basis in order to identify unlawful activities as well as detect attackers (Netland, 2008, p. 17).

In addition universities require strong authentication to ensure that confidential data is only accessed by authorized users. Password-based authentication require end-to-end encryption between the server and mobile end-users since hackers can easily sniff usernames and passwords on encrypted wireless connections. What’s more, students must be compelled to access sensitive information via SSL, Secure Shell (SSH) or encrypted virtual private networks to alleviate spoof-attack threats.

It deserves merit to mention that procedures for alleviating threats on non-sensitive information also mitigate those associated with sensitive data. As such, confidential data (i.e. medical information) should not be uploaded on any online-linked network (Netland, 2008, p. 17). In conclusion, university networks must have a strong design that utilizes robust encryption as well as robust authentication in order to safeguard confidential data.

Security Measures

Service-Level Authentication

Given that end-users are required to authenticate themselves prior to accessing confidential data on the network; the IT staff must modify the strength of the authentication in order to accommodate security requirements of a particular service. A strong authentication (i.e. public-key infrastructure or hardware token) should be used to access confidential data while access to non-sensitive information can be done using password-based authentication.

In addition, the network perimeter must have security mechanisms (i.e. intrusion detection systems and firewalls) whereas the internal defence system should incorporate security systems (on the serve and user) where the data is stored. In addition, monitoring systems must be deployed by the IT staff to make sure that all users conform to the prescribed security protocols (Hole et al., 2008, p. 15).

Network Boundary Authentication

Figure 1 (see appendix) illustrates an information system model whereby wireless access points communicate with remote terminals to access servers. Users are authenticated by the system (at the network perimeter) before they can access any information. The authentication boundary is indicated by the black line.

Information contained within the boundary can only be accessed by users with valid authentication. The red line show data flow between the end-users and the server. Since the network boundary authentication is only relevant to wireless end-users, access to confidential information is limited to those users with an extra service-level authentication (Hole et al., 2008, p. 15).

Security Policies that Address Threats and Vulnerabilities

The public sector and the private sector are currently engaged in a series of policy discussions to develop strategies to protect control systems from cyber attacks. For instance, a number of documents have been developed by the American Gas Association. These documents propose best practises to safeguard network systems communications from cyber attacks.

The proposed practises lend credence on the privacy of network system communications. In addition, the American Petroleum Institute (API) has developed some guidelines to improve control system security and integrity in the oil and gas sector (Yu-Lun et al, 2009, p. 70).

The public sector has also developed a number of security policies to mitigate cyber crimes. For instance, the Department of Energy has developed a 10-year security plan for mitigating cyber attacks in the energy sector. The plan focuses on four key areas:

(1) evaluating the present security status;

(2) crafting and assimilating defensive measures;

(3) identifying intrusion and adopting response plans;

and (4) preserving security enhancements.

Many organizations are currently using wireless sensor network in their systems to transmit and receive crucial information. Consequently, several organizations have collaborated to introduce sensor networks their process control systems as well as synchronize their communications.

Their wireless communication suggestions allow an organization to configure integrity mechanism with end-to-end and hop-by-hop mechanism. In addition, the proposal offers vital protocols for key management and access control (Yu-Lun et al, 2009, p. 73; Netland, 2008, p. 39).).

Risk Assessment Strategy

Man-in-the-Middle attack is undoubtedly the most severe form of cyber attacks. The following sections discuss phases of risk assessment strategy for Man-in-the-Middle attack (Netland, 2008, p. 38).

System Description

This phase entails identifying system assets and information such as system users, network topology, software, and hardware (Netland, 2008, p. 38).

Threat Identification

The purpose of this phase is to identify individuals (or groups) who may deliberately take advantage of vulnerability within the system to an attack. These entities consist of insiders, script kiddies and organized crime (Netland, 2008, p. 39).

Vulnerability Identification

This phase entails identifying all potential flaws within the system that could permit attackers to compromise the system’s security (Netland, 2008, p. 38).

Risk Assessment

A risk level is allocated to each threat/vulnerability pair on the basis of the probability of happening and the resultant impact (Netland, 2008, p. 39).

Risk Treatment

This phase deals with finding the best strategy to mitigate the potential threat/vulnerability pair identified. Usually, a risk acceptance threshold indicates the risk level that can be tolerated by the organization. If the identified threat/vulnerability pair transcends this threshold, it can be mitigated in three ways:

(1) adopting corrective strategies to diminish the risk to acceptable level;

(2) employing workarounds to evade the threat;

and (3) relocating the threat to other parties, such as insurance providers (Netland, 2008, p. 39).


Hole, J., Netland, L., Helleseth, H., & Jan, B. (2008). Open Wireless Networks on University Campuses. IEE Security & Privacy, 14-20.

Netland, L. (2008). Assessing and Mitigating Risks in Computer Systems. Norway: University of Bergen.

Yu-Lun, Huang., Alvaro, Cardenas., Saurabh, A., & Shankar, S. (2009). Understanding the Physical and Economic Consequences of Attacks against Control Systems. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 2(2), 69-134.


Figure 1: Authentication of users to the network infrastructure

MLA Product Strategy

In all businesses, designing operations play a pivotal role in ensuring that the products and services being offered remain competitive, profitable and ideal despite numerous challenges that characterize different markets.

As such, having thorough knowledge on operation management principles and concepts may give a business entity the competitive advantage it needs to guarantee its success in a highly competitive marketing arena. This paper shall set out to summarize a chapter of a book discussing the design of goods and services, and provide a case study analysis using the concepts discussed in this chapter.

Chapter Summary

Throughout this chapter, the authors emphasize on the importance of understanding the production process of goods and services. To foster clarity, the authors state that a business should develop a production strategy that facilitates efficient product and service selection, creation of new products and services, product development and competition strategies.

Using credible sources, the authors support their statements and arguments with facts and real life examples, which enable the readers to understand, define and apply product design concepts appropriately.

In the same chapter, the authors discuss the documentation for production, production decision-making processes and total quality management (tqm) as core factors in ensuring customer satisfaction. Overall, this chapter seeks to educate readers on the factors that contribute to total customer satisfaction throughout the production process and operations management. The authors have successfully articulated their ideas in a concise and understandable manner.

Case study analysis: De Mar?s product strategy

Identification of De Mar’s product: the tangible and intangible (service) components of De Mar’s product

Located in Fresno, California, De Mar is a company that repairs and installs plumbing systems, heaters and air-conditioners to clients within this region. The tangible parts of their products consist of the physical parts (spares and new equipments) handled during the repair and installation of the selected system.

On the other hand, the service components include same day service, no extra charges and a one year guarantee for services rendered. By defining its product and services, de mar has successfully set itself apart from its competitors by developing a strong reputation and philosophy based on total customer satisfaction. The company’s product strategy focuses on solving customers’ problems in a timely, reliable and quality manner.

How should other areas of De Mar (marketing, finance, personnel) support its product strategy?

De Mar prides itself in having interlinked systems that work together to achieve set goals and strategies. As such, the marketing section of de mar should intensify its promotional efforts and seek to inform and remind current and potential customers that the company’s products are designed to satisfy their needs to the maximum.

In addition, the marketing section should foster consumer and brand loyalty by ensuring the clients that the slight difference in pricing is well compensated by the intangible services the company offers to its clients (the value/price ratio is worth it for the clients).

In regard to the personnel section, employees should be handpicked to ensure that they agree with the company’s philosophy and strategy. In addition, new employees should undergo special education to ensure that they are oriented with the systems, strategies and policies adopted by De Mar.

Existing employees should attend training and retraining programs in a bid to improve and/or maintain efficiency in their performance. In addition, good working conditions, payment packages and bonuses should be offered to employees so that they can be motivated to perform better.

Finally, the financial section can play its role by developing cost effective marketing, pricing and production budgets. This can be achieved by consistently doing market research, which will provide valuable financial information regarding the factors that affect the pricing, marketing and production trends within a given market.

Management techniques based on the 10 operations management decisions that can be used by De Mar to ensure the success of the product

Competitive advantage can be achieved and maintained by guaranteeing customer satisfaction. This can be done by ensuring that they provide fast services, consistent prices and guarantees to clients. The human resource must come up with a recruitment and selection process that matches the employee’s skills to the organizational goals. For example, the job design may consider flexibility, friendliness and expertise as pertinent towards the hiring process.

Similarly, ongoing training and education will ensure that employees have the necessary skills needed to handle any problem easily and professionally within a given time frame. This is important because it enables employees to be confident in an individual or group setting. In addition, aggressive promotion can increase product awareness thereby giving de mar strong publicity that ensures consumer loyalty and an ever expanding market base.

From the text, an increase in productivity can be evidenced from the dramatic rise from $200, 000 to $3.3 million within the past eight years. This is a clear indication that the strategies implemented by de mar are efficient. As such, the performance level should be maintained, if not improved.


The production process plays a pivotal role in ensuring that products are developed and distributed in a quality and efficient manner. The discussion presented herein provides valuable information that can be applied to guarantee total customer satisfaction

Why do people watch reality TV?

Are people dangerously disillusioned with their livelihoods such that they have to keep watching others on TV? This is a question that many scientific papers try to unravel as these programs continue to undo our civilized society. The shows are continuously attracting a large audience every new day. There are mixed reactions that explain such a rise.

The great quantity of the programs looks like they are as reliable as the seasons, with shows like the “American Idol” and some Soap Operas being more popular than any other time ever. Their imitations are proliferating the cable channels at an alarming rate. In the entire world, people are fascinated by the rising popularity of reality TV programs. This paper explores the reasons behind the popularity of reality TV programs.

Advantages of reality TV programs

To understand the reason why many people watch reality TV, it is imperative to analyze the advantages of these programs. Firstly, these programs can be informative and thought provoking (Hill, 2005). For instance, programs that deal with crime can educate people on the dangers that policemen deal with on a daily basis.

Other programs that deal with health issues can help people, especially pregnant women, depict early signs of complications. It is possible for viewers to learn of the disease symptoms through the information gotten from some of the reality programs like Dr. OZ, for example. In these programs, viewers also identify themselves with the celebrities in the view that they will one day become ones. These programs provide people with an opportunity to showcase their natural gifts and make people aware of social causes.

What is so appealing about reality TV programs?

The greatest appeal that makes these programs so popular is that viewers feel as though they are real participants. Secondly, the suspense created by these programs makes viewers anticipate the next episodes.

Especially the Soap Operas create a high level of suspense that makes viewers remain glued to their TV sets wishing to see the next move. Other programs, such as the American Idol, give their viewers toll-free numbers to participate by making their remarks. This has a great appeal to the viewers who would always want to make recommendations.

Thirdly, most of these programs deal with the real life situations that people are facing. Thus, other individuals watch them as a way of trying to find means to come out of their flabbergasting circumstances in life (Hill, 2005). For instance, married men may watch reality programs that deal with cheating to find out tactics to deal with their cheating wives. Another appeal is that viewers are given a chance to compare their lives with those of the shows’ protagonists (they are able to blend fantasy with reality).

However, some reality shows promote poor behavior such as emphasizing just sexual aspects of dating as opposed to developing mature and loving relationships. This is a detrimental effect of the programs. At times such detrimental aspects can contribute to some social problems in the society.


Different people watch reality programs for various reasons, but the greatest of all seems to be the fact that these programs make the viewers feel as if they are part of the action. The above article explores the people’s behavior and the manner in which the programs affect their livelihoods, either positively or negatively.


Hill, A. (2005). Reality TV: Factual Entertainment and Television Audiences. London: Tailor & Francis group.

The impact of media on adolescents, and the roles played by school and parents

The media has a detrimental impact on adolescents. However, not all media content has detrimental effects on adolescents as some have positive effects on the psychosocial development of adolescents. Nonetheless, there has been a growing concern about the impact of media content exposure on adolescents.

This is because a lot of sexually explicit content, violence, and drug- related information are available on the electronic media, new media, and traditional media. The growing concern on the impact of media on adolescent focuses on behaviours, beliefs and sexual attitudes of adolescents (Gruber & Grube, 2000). Adolescence is a stage of growth and development when a young person is willing to try new things for fun and discover his/her inner self.

Media in this case entails different media channels such as the internet, video games, music, radio, television, movies, and films. Since media has a negative impact on adolescents, both teachers and parents have a role to play in addressing the resultant issues of media exposure on adolescents.

There are more negative effects of media exposure on adolescents than positive ones. An increasingly higher number of adolescents are exposed to sexually explicit media content full of violence, crime, and drug use. Such an exposure makes adolescents more vulnerable compared with other groups. It is also during this stage that sexual behaviours, attitudes and gender are shaped (Gruber & Grube, 2000).

In addition, adolescence is also the stage whereby adolescents develop their cognitive skills with a focus mainly on testing and experimenting. Exposure to violent media content has the capacity to increase the aggressive behaviour of adolescents towards fellow students (Ford-Jones & Nieman, 2003). Moreover, exposure to sexual media content makes children view sex as a risk -free normal activity.

As a result, adolescents are exposed to the risks of early pregnancy, premature sex, and sexually transmitted diseases. Video games with violent actions have the risk of affecting mental development of adolescents. Other notable impacts of media include cigarette smoking and taking alcohol. All these negative effects of media on adolescents include declined academic performance.

Schools and parents play an integral role in addressing the above mentioned issues of media exposure on adolescents. As noted by Ford-Jones and Nieman (2003), previous studies show that schools with programs that promote and encourage media awareness have proven to be beneficial.

Teachers help to create awareness of the effects of exposure to media content on adolescents’ social attitudes, behaviours, lifestyles, school performance and beliefs (Ford-Jones & Nieman, 2003). Concerned adults and parents have a role to play in ensuring that the lives of adolescents are not affected negatively. For instance, they supervise, communicate, and guide adolescents on media choices.

Parents also control the time adolescents spend watching television and on the internet (Gruber & Grube, 2000). Parental control on TV programs, movies to watch and video games to play can also reduce the effects of media exposure. Some parents control and monitor media content and programs that a child is exposed to (Ford-Jones & Nieman, 2003).

Media exposure has detrimental effects on adolescents’ development, behaviours, beliefs, attitudes, and beliefs. In also leads to poor performance in school, smoking, alcoholism, early unplanned pregnancies, risk to STDs, and violence among the adolescents. Parents can play important role by communicating with their children, controlling and monitoring content watched and guiding and supervising media content watched. Schools create enlighten adolescents on the effects of media through special awareness programs.

Reference List

Ford-Jones, A., & Nieman, P. (2003). Impact of media use on children and youth. Pediatrics Child Health, 8(5), 301–306.

Gruber, E., & Grube, J. W. (2000). Adolescent sexuality and the media. Western Journal of Medicine, 2000 172(3), 210–214.

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