Supply Chain Management

Product and Service Differentiation

Supply chain management is an indispensable component for organizations in managing the supply of their products into the market, starting from the industry to the final consumer. This is the case with pharmaceutical firms.

A firm needs to competitively stay in the market ahead of others by creating competitive strategies and aligning them with organizational goals, objectives, and vision. This is particularly the case with pharmaceutical firms where prices of medicines are tightly controlled by the government.

For a firm to create competitive advantage over its rivals, strategic approaches incorporated in the pursuit of its goals include product and service differentiation. Clever company executives realize that there are no controls over these areas and endeavor to strategically exploit them to the competitive advantage of a firm. To aggressively and innovatively pursue a firm’s strategic goal and remain competitive, a firm incorporates several approaches discussed below.

Increasing the Product Range

Sustainable profits, a wide market, strong market position, and a strong image are core elements company executives innovatively factor into a firm’s pursuit of its strategic goals to competitively remain in the market. A firm may differentiate its core activities by diversifying them to gain sustainable profits. These are achieved by increasing the product range offered by a firm in addition to the sale of medicine, a core business activity. Firm managers realize that diversifying a firm’s product range increases its market base and profit generation. This has the additional effect of improving a company’s image, increasing the customer base, and advertising the name of the company.

Training Staff to Be Helpful and Knowledgeable

Customers determine the profitability of a company. A satisfied customer will always tell another customer about a service or a product. In addition to that, a satisfied customer will always go back for more. To achieve this, company executives train staff to better equip them for better service provisions and product delivery.

Staff training equips staff with appropriate work related technical skills leading to personal development. This is a motivational factor for employees and their managers. Companies however, should adopt the most cost effective training methods appropriate for employee working conditions. Specific job procedures and technical knowledge span areas companies should concentrate on in the training process. According to the Staff Training document, training strategies in the technical field can be external, internal, or online (2).

Thorough investigations about one’s job should be done by company executives before training commences. Technical trainings are at times short as the knowledge gained is exact (Staff Training, 2).

On the other hand, on-the-job procedures require an accumulation of knowledge and focuses on knowledge and skills transfer. This involves old employees taking new employees through work related procedures and activities. Thus, employees become effectively equipped with the knowledge and skills to provide better services and improve company image.

The contents and skills needed for the training should be clearly identified and defined in the process. In the process, training procedures should be identified and documented, and training approaches determined also. A staff training program should incorporate methods of delivery. These may be formal, informal, or on-line as mentioned above.

Working with Manufactures

Details such as the condition of the goods on arrival, deviations or consistency with the agreed upon price, quantity of products delivered, reliability and integrity of documentation, the delivery time, and the ability to sustain a product’s packaging are critical elements when working with manufacturers and suppliers.

The performance of a supplier can be rated on the technical skills of its employees, management competency, management approaches to enforcing controls, ability to consistently supply the required products, its financial stability, and its strategic abilities in terms of its capital needs. Supplier reliability is influenced by

the attention performance appraisal staff gets from the supplier firms, individual attitudes, maintenance levels of manufacturing equipments, quality control enforcement mechanisms, effective housekeeping, and the level of technical expertise of the supplying firm.

This ensures inventory control and reliable and sustainable stock levels. This leads to customer satisfaction and places a firm at a competitive advantage over its rivals.

Value Addition Services

Any firm on the fringes of success must factor value addition services to its products and service delivery. This is not the core business of a firm, but is a promoting strategy for increased consumer spending on a product or service.

A firm may strategize on a cost effective approach in offering value addition to its customers. These services can be outsourced or developed in-house. Value added services may add additional costs to a company but the benefits out weigh incurred costs.

Some of the benefits include customer satisfaction, better ratings, increased consumption of its products and services, better responses to customer concerns, better analysis of customer behavior, more information on product innovation in line with customer needs and wants, and better customer involvement in product innovations.


To persuade the market and gain a bigger share and maintain a strong position, pharmaceutical firms have to continuously advertise the range of their products to the consumer. Consumers well equipped with appropriate knowledge about current company products are likely to develop positive minds in their buying process. Besides advertising their products, firms include their names in adverts to create a good image about them and their products. Advertising targets various groups of consumers.

These include individuals, various governmental and non-governmental organizations, and other groups of interest. Advertising should target each group’s needs and the best products and strategy to satisfy their needs and wants. In addition to that, advertising should be environmentally friendly and should generate feelings about environmental conservation and preservation.

This generates increased product consumption, increased confidence, and better branding. Different media can be used to reach various audiences. These include the internet and radio among others. Sales promotions, marketing mix, and other advertising strategies competitively place a firm ahead of its rivals.

The marketing concept of product, place, price, and promotion should be vital in the marketing strategy. The product element spans packaging, product warranties, product quality, and safety. Price spans discounts, skimming and other strategies, flexibility in pricing, and seasonal discounts. Place spans market size, distribution channels, warehousing, and inventory controls. Promotion includes public relations, the communication budget, and the push and pulls approaches in marketing among other elements (Marketing 1).

Automated Dispensing System

One strategic advantage of a firm is to incorporate an automatic dispensing system in its products and services delivery. This technology facilitates service and product delivery. Employees incorporate their skills in the use of this facility in enhancing and improving productivity in the workplace. The resulting benefits span employee, customer, and management satisfaction and work level productivity.

Works Cited

Marketing. Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, Inc. 2002-2010. 14 Aug. 2010. 2002-2010. website

Staff Training. Preliminary Strategies. 14 Aug.2010.

“Black Boy” by Richard Wright


The novel “Black Boy” by Richard Wright is his autobiographical story from childhood through his teen age and was published in 1945. Wright was born in 1908 and lived until 1960 and has been exclaimed as a great novelist, non-fiction writer, poet and short story writer with his works of art being widely read and still relevant to modern-day society.

Wright writes more about his life from early childhood dealing with racial relations and unsettlement to social isolation, clashes with religion, problems with employers of the white race as well as political issues. The book forms part of American non-fiction works in modern-day literature. Wright’s work of Black Boy is the novel of study in this paper. The paper analyzes the book’s plot summary, characters, themes, quotes, objects and places mentioned and their significance to the author.

Plot Summary

The story opens with one of the earliest memories of the author in a rural Natchez, Mississippi plantation as a child of four years, standing near the fire place. Since he had been warned to stay quiet; he plays with fire and accidentally burns down the family house. This causes his mother to beat him up almost to the point of death (Jones and Wright 4).

They later move to Memphis where his father abandons them and his mother Ella struggles to provide for the family while the family falls into perpetual hunger and poverty (Andrews and Taylor 15). Ella’s hard work causes her to develop health problems leaving Richard with the option of looking for odd jobs to provide for the family.

At this point, education is not a priority for Wright and his brother. The family then moves to Elaine, Arkansas to live with Maggie, Ella’s sister, and her husband Hoskin where life is much better due to the success of the saloon business run by Hoskin. Hoskin is later murdered out of sheer white jealousy, and the two women run away with the two children to West Helena, Arkansas where life is good due to their combined financial efforts. Maggie leaves for Detroit, forcing Ella and the children to experience hard economic times.

They later travel to Jackson, Mississippi to live with Richard’s grandmother. Alan, Richard’s brother, goes to Maggie’s place in Detroit, Ella lives with her mother in Jackson, while Richard chooses to live with Uncle Clark in Greenwood, Mississippi. Richard later goes back to his granny’s place, despite the problem of hunger but faces another problem of strict religion from his granny and Aunt Addie who force him to attend religious classes.

His Uncle Tom comes to live with the family in Jackson. Richard joins school with interest in writing upon graduation. He joins the work life at an optical shop, in the post office and other jobs and continues his struggle with racism. The story comes to a close as he leaves the Communist party and also the south region still determined to continue his writing work (Felgar 37).

Characters in the Book

Wright is the central character of the novel with the story revolving around him. He is presented as a four-year-old child who progresses with the story in his childhood to early adulthood (Briones 4). As a young child, he refuses to accept the notion about his color, lack of religion and develops intellectual curiosity. Wright is presented as not only believing in his own worth and capabilities, but also as a stubborn, willful, independent and a rebellious youth who challenges parental authority, refuses to adapt to strict religion, stands up to his aunts and uncles even challenging them to physical violence, refuses to read the script required by his school principal and stands up to the whites at his work place (Wright 156-167).

Wright is willing to express himself and this makes him experience emotional isolation and physical violence which fuel in him an urge of creativity and love for reading and writing (Felgar 700).

He is a non conformer with a strong willed character despite his background, social status and racism. He is willing to stand to his principles but has negative traits when he lies, steals and engages in physical violence and shows some weakness and inferiority towards some whites. He is not closely connected with people especially his family though he has love for humanity (Bell-Russel 115). Due to his age, his character traits are dynamic depending on the circumstances.

Ella Wright is Richard’s mother. The story captures most of the moments when she is sick and suffering. However, she presents parental authority when she disciplines Richard and is compassionate and independent due to her ability to take care of the family when her husband abandons them. She is tolerant and affectionate especially in her support of Richard’s writings (Gallantz 88). The author uses her suffering nature to present the issues of family relationships, poverty, racism, hunger and injustice. Nathaniel, Richard’s father, is presented briefly as a selfish man who abandons his family and later on as a sharecropper who represents slavery (Felgar 39). Granny with her white hair is compassionate as she takes Richard and his family to live with her. Her strict religion and hot temper stand out as she acts as a dictator who forces Richard to religion, uses it as an excuse for her anger and stands in the way of Richard’s curiosity (Felgar 700).

Addie and Tom are presented as dependent living with their mother, but Addie is strictly religious, fearful and a conformist. Maggie is a hardworking lady, married to Hoskin and on his death remarries thus representing her dependence while still compassionate and affectionate as she takes Alan to live with her. Reynolds and Pease who are whites and Nealson and Ed Green who are black communists are racist, rigid, and intimidating (Dinnerstein 81).

The female relatives stand out in the life of Richard from his mother who disciplines and supports him, his Aunt Maggie with whom Richard gets well along, his granny who is hot tempered and religious and his aunt Addie who teaches Richard the religious classes. Richard’s brother does not seem significant in Richard’s life. He does not share in Richard’s rebellion and later goes to live with their aunt Maggie in Detroit. The school principal is a conformist and dictatorial who tries to force Richard to change his speech.

Themes in “Black Boy”

Black Boy outlines several themes most of which are connected to Richard. Racism forms the main theme which Richard associates with discrimination and injustice (Young 695). While growing up, he witnesses a black boy beaten by a white man. Hoskin is killed out of jealousy of the whites. His principal wants him to give a speech to please the whites.

He encounters Reynolds and Pease who are racist and he eventual leaves the Southern region due to racism (Felgar 701). Family life serves as a theme for Black Boy with Richard presenting it as living a deprived life with no support especially emotionally and financially when the father leaves them and the criticisms experienced from the relatives who want Richard to conform to their expectations (Briones 5).

During his childhood days, Richard experiences miserable living conditions, poverty, hunger, constant resettling of the family, lack of emotional support and hunger among others which make him more hard working and determined ( The family however proves supportive through the willingness of the relatives to help Richard’s family during his mother’s illness and her support for his writing work.

Religion is presented in Black Boy. Richard is of the opinion that religion is oppressive and meaningless though there are some imagery and stories of the same he finds interesting. Richard perceives religion as a way of silencing curiosity and a questioning attitude to maintain the status quo of racism (Wright 100).

Isolation is presented in the book through the life of Richard most of which he spends alone. These times provide him with strength and happiness out of which his love for writing, reading and creativity is developed. Black Boy also presents the theme of rebellion based on the behavior and attitude of Richard from his childhood to his early adulthood.

Richard rebels and challenges both parental and other forms of authority (Wright 2). He refuses to fit in the racial expectations of his parents, he rebels against religion from his granny, he attempts physical violence against his aunt Addie and uncle Tom, refuses to read the speech as directed by the principal and goes against the party expectations and those of his fellow employees.

Objects and Places of Significance in Black Boy

The novel Black Boy places emphasis and significance on certain places and objects in society. The places start at home, the church, Beale Street, the school, the church and the communist party (Felgar 699). Richard portrays the home as a place of high emotional conflict with him being criticized for his rebellion, his father leaving them and having to work at an early age (Wright 7).

However, the home is also presented as a place of support where Ella is able to get support from the family during her poor health condition while she also supports the writing of Richard. Richard’s family perceives Beale Street as evil, yet contrary to this, Richard meets Moss his landlady and daughter who welcome and show interest in him by suggesting that he marries Bess since to them he is a nice person.

Black Boy presents the place of the hospital where as a custodian dealing with animal experiments, his black friends are not able to handle the experiment since the white doctors had not taught them causing them to cover up for their mistake.

This is presented in the working life of Richard since whites do not mind blacks stealing or lying as long as they maintain their places in authority (Andrews and Taylor 77). The church plays a significant role in the book that granny and Addie use to discipline Richard.

The church has transformed them to a faith and belief that causes them to believe that the church is the one that can transform Richard who to granny is sinful and rebellious. Granny perceives the word of God as law and hence cannot be questioned while Richard is not interested in it. Black Boy presents the church as one way of increasing racism (Dinnerstein 82).

The school presents as a significant place that enables Richard to get away from his family and reveals his desire for reading and writing. It presents a platform for Richard to be able to express himself for example through being able to present a speech and being able to write “The Voodoo of Hell’s Half-acre” published in the local daily.

However, the aspect of racism is also presented where the principal demands that Richard presents a different speech than the one he wanted so as to create a good impression and appease the white audience to maintain his job. Later on in his professional life, Richard joins the communist party which gives him a platform for his writing career (Bell-Russel 116).

The party helps him realize that racism is not common to everyone with some people just able to help others with the human perspectives and have the zeal for realizing their full potential as normal human beings. Richard realizes that these kinds of people try to not only transform themselves but also the world through the use of politics. He finds like-minded people but they are suspicious, ignorant, with human fears and insecurity and they criticize him on the basis of intellectualism. Richard experiences another moment of isolation and he later leaves the party so as to maintain his values (Wright 389).


The novel Black Boy by Richard Wright comprehensively presents the story of the author in his childhood through to his teenage hood. The relevance of the novel has been enhanced through the use of the first person narration. This paper provides a review and analysis of the novel based on the plot summary, characters, themes, objects and places mentioned in the novel thus revealing its creative and orderly manner.

Works Cited

Andrews, William, and Douglas Taylor. Richard Wright’s Black Boy (American hunger): a casebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Bell-Russel, Danna. “Richard Wright: Black Boy.” Library Journal, 1 (1997): 115-116.

Briones, Matthew. “Call and Response: Tracing the ideological shifts of Richard Wright through his correspondence with friends and fellow literati.” African American Review, 37.1 (2003): 53-64.

Dinnerstein, Leonard. “The Viciousness of Racism.” Labor History, 40.1 (1999): 81-82.

Felgar, Robert. Understanding Richard Wright’s Black boy: A Student casebook to issues, sources and historical documents. Westport: Greenwood Publishers, 1998.

Gallantz, Michael. Richard Wright’s Native Son & Black Boy. Woodbury, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, 1985.

Jones, Edward, and Richard Wright. Black Boy. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2005. From Black Boy by Richard Wright, 2010. Web. 14 August 2010.

Wright, Richard. Black Boy (P.S). New York: Harper Perennial Publications, 2007.

Young, Robert. “The Politics of Reading Richard Wright: Black boy as Ideological Critique.” The Western Journal of Black Studies, 29.4 (2005): 694-701.

Principle of observation

The principle of observation can be defined as the art of passing knowledge or ideas by viewing the actions of a model from which one imitates (Bandura, 1962). This method of learning is also referred to as the social learning theory. Observational learning is very effective to all humans regardless of their age. Children for instance, are socialized into their personality through imitating their parents’ or other siblings’ actions. They learn the basics in life to the very complex of actions.

In work places on the other hand, the same technique is often utilized during trainings. For instance, new members of staff learn a lot more through observation than is the case with learning through reading or other learning methods. A recruit could be assigned a workmate who has more experience in that particular field, and is expected to acquire skills.

The first proponent of this principle of observation learning was Albert Bandura, who was a Canadian by nationality. Bandura (1977) has it that “Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” (p22). Observation learning engages four main ideas for it to be most effective. These ideas include; attention, retention, reproduction and motivation.

A learner ought to engage all of his/her undivided attention to the process of observation. This ensures every detail of the actions is well captured for imitation to be successful. Once the action is done, the learner should retain a clear mental image of the details in the act. This mental image should aid the learner to reproduce the action along with all its complexity. All in all, it would be difficult for a learner to appreciate a certain action which he/she has no interest in. Therefore, there should be some source of motivation to build up his/her interest level. For example, a promotion would work well at the work place (1962).

The following is a description of the structure to put in place for employees to appreciate putting away or leaving work materials/ equipment in the best condition for another person to use.

First and fore most, call an early morning meeting to bring to the employees’ attention the tendency to leave equipments in bad states has been noted. Show them evidences of what you are talking about, for example dirty tools, broken down equipments etc. Let them know the problem associated with the condition of the equipments, like wastage of time in trying to clear previous day’s messes.

Secondly, provide solutions to the problem. This can be done by providing ideas on the easiest and most effective ways of cleaning the equipment in the case of dirty tools. Incase of equipments, show easy ways of maintenance or way to prevent damage while using the equipment. Ensure that you demonstrate each detail by action to show them that what they might have perceived as impossible is actually possible. Also, ensure that they do it themselves so as to retain the concept in their minds.

Appoint some of the employees to ensure that this becomes a daily routine along with normal practices of the organization. This ensures that this becomes the responsibility of each worker to see to it that he/she returns equipment in a better condition than he/she found it. Moreover, ensure that once in a while equipments are inspected by those in authority. This should see to it that employees avoid misusing equipment as there are charges incase of a damage associated to maliciousness.

Last but not least, it is important to motivate the workers towards good equipment maintenance practices. Motivation could come through promoting those that adhere to the new rules of engagement, or just by complementing the workers efforts. Alternatively, workers could be charged for any losses to the organization as a result of misuse or mismanagement of equipment.

Observation learning has quite a number of strengths, especially due to the fact that it is responsible for socializing children to have a personality. This method covers quite a number of explanations which would otherwise take a lot of effort to put across by text. The method uses more than one mode of learning. It addresses the issue at hand from a wide range of perceptions since it involves all the five senses. Thus, it is easier for a learner to capture an idea hence less effort for the teacher (Akers, 1977).

Further, observation learning is effective because making the learner motivated simply comes by complementing his/ her efforts to imitate the master model. Sooner rather than later, the learner develops a high degree of expertise that he/she no longer requires to observe his/her master. He/she becomes a force to recon.

Besides text, other resources on observational learning include images on power point presentations. This could be used to explain details besides what is written. Also, the teacher could use models, which could be experts in particular fields. Their time and effort are resources.

Reference List

Akers, R. (1977). Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach. Belmont Mass, Wadsworth: NY.

Bandura, A. (1962). Social Learning through Imitation. University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, NE.

The development of twentieth-century music: Schoenberg Vs. Stravinsky

Walter notes: “In the twentieth century, the music industry underwent a revolution and it brought with it new freedom and wide experimentation. Although there was an emergence of new musical styles and forms which challenged the normal and accepted rules that applied during the earlier periods.” [1] However, there are many composers who continued to work in forms and in a musical language that originated from the nineteenth century.

Nonetheless, modernism became increasingly outstanding and important with composers experimenting with form, tonality and orchestration. These composers are such as Rachmaninoff, Edward Elgar, Claude Debussy and post-Wagnerian composers such as Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler. A few of the other composers such as Busoni, Schreker, Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg had already been recognized as modernists even before 1914.

All of these composers offered major contributions in the development of music during the 20th century in their own exceptional ways. This paper deals with two of the most significant and vital figures in this development and the roles they played. Arnold Schoenberg and Igor Stravinsky were two of the most noteworthy composers during the twentieth century, both with different but equally notable roles to the progress of the music industry.

Arnold Schoenberg, an Austrian but later became an American composer, was born on 13th September 1874 in the Leopoldstadt district, Vienna in a lower middle class Jewish family. Walter notes “Schoenberg was linked to the expressionist movement in German poetry and art and he was also a leader of the Second Viennese School.” [2] Schoenberg’s major milestone in the musical scene of the 20th century was his approach in terms of harmony and development.

His approach and thoughts on music have been consciously extended by at least three generations both in the American and European traditions. In some instances, it has also been passionately reacted against such as during the rise of the Nazi party in Austria when his music was labeled as degenerate art.

Schoenberg’s name was used as a personification of what turned out to be most polemical aspect of the 20th century art music, advancement in atonality. During the 1920’s, Schoenberg came up with the twelve-tone technique. This is a method of manipulating an ordered series of the twelve notes that are found in the chromatic scale which is has proved to be significant to a great extent.

In addition to coming up with the term “developing variation”, he was also the first modern composer to acknowledge an approach of developing motifs without considering the idea of the supremacy of a centralized melodic idea.[3]

Heinz notes “apart from him being a painter, a prominent teacher of composition as well as a significant music theorist, Schoenberg taught a number of well-known musicians such as Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Hanns Eisler, John Cage, Lou Harrison, Earl Kim and many others.”[4] Many of his practices such as openly engaging audiences to think critically and crafting the compositional method in a formal way are replicated in advanced musical structures throughout the 20th century. Schoenberg’s past life, visualizations and his views on music which was regularly polemical were crucial to a lot of the major musicologists and opponents of the 20th century era.

However, at the age of 42, he found himself enlisted into the army with the instigation of World War 1. His involvement in Military service brought a crisis in his development as it disrupted his life. As a result, Schoenberg was never able to do his work without interruptions or for a long period of time, therefore leaving a lot of unfinished work and some in their initial stages but were yet to be developed.

In spite of Arnold Schoenberg being a significant composer of the 20th century, I consider Igor Stravinsky to be more prominent of the two. Stravinsky is renowned as one of the pioneering, ingenious and high-profiled composers of the twentieth century music. He is originally from Russia and was born in 1882 in Lomonosov (originally named Oranienbaum) into a musical family. However he later became a citizen of France and eventually The United States.

Despite Stravinsky’s father being an operatic bass player, his parents did not support him and wanted him to practice law. His personal interest however was more concentrated on the musical element and by the time his father passed away in 1902, he was already focusing lesser on his law classes and spending more of his time on his musical studies.

During his university years, he made the acquaintance of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov who was a leading Russian composer at that time. He decided to become a composer at age 20 and therefore Rimsky-Korsakov who also became like a second father to him, took him under his private tutelage from 1902 – 1908.

In 1909, his piece Feu d’artifice (Fireworks) was heard by Sergei Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris during a performance in Saint Petersburg. Diaghilev was satisfactorily impressed and he therefore hired Stravinsky to carry out some orchestrations and as a result he wrote the first ballet for the theater which he named The Firebird. Afterward this was rapidly followed by Petrushka and the Rite of Spring.[5]

During his career, which spanned through six decades he composed an impressive succession of works of astounding diversity. There were the vibrantly colorful Russian ballets of the early stages, the sharp wit and purity depicted in his neo-classical compositions and the prevailing spirituality seen in works such as the Symphony of Psalms. In his later works, one could also recognize the highly individual application of serialism.

“Stravinsky’s career-life can be categorized into 3 stylistic periods: The first period is the Russian Period, which began with Feu d’artifice and attained reputation with the three ballets that were composed for Diaghilev.” These ballets are L’oiseau de feu, Petrushka and Le Sacre du Printemps, which was among the most legendary classical music revolution. The works of this period were largely influenced by Rimsky-Korsakov’s imaginative scoring and use of instruments and mainly employed Russian folk themes and motifs.

The second period which is known as the Neo-classical period began from around 1920 when he implemented a musical idiom that was comparable to that of the classical period up till 1954 when he adjusted to twelve-tone serialism. Stravinsky’s earlier masterpieces, which highlighted his re-evaluation of Mozart’s and Bach’s conventional songs, were “Pulcinella” and “The Octet”.

For this style, he took up wind instruments and disposed of the large orchestras that were frequently required for ballet. The last neo-classical work was the opera, The Rake’s Progress in 1951 that was based on the designs of Hogarth. From 1954 to 1968, there was the third period which was also known as the serial period.

This is when Stravinsky started using successive compositional techniques that included the twelve-tone technique that was initially invented by Arnold Schoenberg along with dodecaphony. He used the twelve-tone technique in compositions such as Memoriam Dylan Thomas, Agon and Canticum Sacrum. He also expanded his use of dodecaphony in Threni, A Sermon, a narrative and a prayer and in The Flood all founded on biblical content.

Stravinsky is considered an authority in 20th century music and has had considerable influence on composers of all times in all divisions of music. “In his use of motivic development, which refers to the use of musical figures used in a composition, Stravinsky used additive motivic development where he added and subtracted notes without regard to the consequent change in meters.” [6] He was also famous for using a distinct rhythm especially in The Rite of Spring, which later influenced composer Aaron Copland to a great extent.

According to Andrew J. Browne, “Stravinsky is perhaps the only composer who has raised rhythm in itself to the dignity of art.” Stravinsky’s use of neo-classicism led to a widespread use of this style by composers in the late 1920’s and 1930’s. In addition, he used folk material and often exposed folk themes to their most melodic summaries using techniques such inversion and diminution to contort them.

In orchestration, Stravinsky’s ‘The Rite of Spring’ has been discerned as the leading orchestral achievement in the 20th century. He also wrote for unique blends of instruments set up in smaller groups. Besides, he is well known for periodically utilizing extreme arrays of instruments.[7]

As evidently observed, apart from his technical innovations in harmony and rhythm, one can detect the varying faces of his compositional technique but with a preservation of a distinct individuality, which was also very significant. Stravinsky got his inspiration from different cultures, languages and literatures and therefore the influence he had on composers during his lifetime and even after his death is still remarkable.


Copland, A Music and Imagination. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1952.
Stuckenschmidt, H Schoenberg: his life, world, and work. Schirmer Books, New York, 1978.
White, E Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.). University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1979.
E W White. Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1979, p. 141
E W White, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979, p. 155
E W White, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979, p. 256
H stuckenschmindt, Schoenberg: his life, world, and work, New York, Schirmer Books, 1978, p. 15
A Copland, Music and Imagination, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1952, p. 531.
W E Walter, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979, p. 54.
H Stuckenschmindt, Schoenberg: his life, world, and work, New York, Schirmer Books, 1978, p. 124

Royal Dutch Shell


Royal Dutch Shell is the largest oil producer company in Europe whose origin can be traced in Netherlands and Great Britain. The firm’s corporate headquarters are located in Hague, Netherlands while its registered office is in London, United Kingdom. The energy and petrochemical giant is listed in Amsterdam’s Euronext and London Stock Exchange.

According to Fortune Global 500, Royal Dutch Shell ranks as the second largest multinational company with Wal-Mart being the number one. With a massive $285,129,000 in revenues, $12,518,000 after-tax profits and $292,181,000 assets in according to its 2010 financial statements, Shell overtook global giant Exxon Mobil to be the market leader within the petroleum refining industry.

The firm’s incumbent Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is Peter R. Voser. Shell has a human resource base of 102,000 employees and operates in more than 90countries. Its biggest operations are in United States and it operates as Shell Oil Company with its corporate headquarters in Houston, Texas. Other major countries where the firm operates include Japan, Nigeria, Qatar, and Australia and so on.

Political risks

There are a number of political risks affecting the firm’s operations in its international operation. Nigeria has one of the biggest oil and natural reserves in the world estimated to last at least forty years. Shell is facing unending crisis of militants in the Niger Delta. Niger Delta, the largest producer of oil and natural gas in Africa has been facing attacks from armed militia men leading to the company losing millions of dollars (Frynas, 1998, pp.457-478).

Kidnapping and ransom is rampant in this volatile region, forcing shell and other oil and petroleum multinationals such as Agip, Total, Chevron and ExxonMobil to spend millions of dollars in beefing up security. For instance from 2005, Shell Nigeria reported bombings of major pipelines followed by pockets of attacks on the installations and facilities.

The people being targeted are mainly the contractors and the staff. Demands for monster share of oil revenues from the region and release of militants arrested by government authorities are Main reasons for the sporadic attacks (Shell report, 2005). However in 2009, amnesty program was introduced to encourage ceasefire and make the militants to voluntarily surrender the weapons (Tatersall, 2010, para. 2).

Another factor affecting the firm’s operations in Nigeria relates to the upcoming general elections. With the next presidential elections scheduled to be held in April 2011, the country is bound experience intense political tension. This would negatively impact the operations of oil conglomerates in the region.

It is unknown if the current head of state, President Goodluck Jonathan, will run for the top seat. Considering that he hails from Niger Delta, his supporters expect him to contest for the race. Elections have had effect on Shells operations.

Nigerian Government struck a deal with the armed militants in the Niger Delta to stop sabotage against pipelines belonging to Shell, but there are reports that the militants are not satisfied with government promises of jobs and other financial aids. Therefore, there is a high probability that the militants will be used by the politicians for intimidation purposes.

As a political consultant for Shell Company with regard to its operation in Nigeria, the company in conjunction with the government should increase monetary rewards to the militants in addition to creating more employment opportunities for the locals. This will have an effect of reducing poverty by providing steady income to the people of Niger delta.


Royal Dutch Shell has various stakeholders. A stakeholder refers to a party with a vested interest in a firm’s course of operation. The stakeholder can be either an internal such as the shareholders and the employees or external such as the customers and local communities (Docstoc, 2010, pp.4-13). Other stakeholders include oil producing countries. Satisfying the needs of all stakeholders is not an easy task as simple as it appears.

For example, setting the pricing of fuel has been challenging for the company. Natural gas and crude petroleum prices have been rising steadily leading to an increase in profits from the company (Press TV, 2010). Such price increases affects the demand of petroleum by motorists. This arises from the fact that local gas stations hike gas prices.

Needs of the Locals

Shell must also satisfy the needs of the local communities. However it comes at a cost. For instance in Nigeria, Shell has been forced to embark on environmental rehabilitation occasioned by oil spills. Clean ups and remediation is costing the company million of dollars (Shell report, 2005, pp.29). These cleanups are meant to restore the land which has been polluted heavily by decade of oil spills.

The government and Shell have been forced to pay people of Niger Delta $1.5 million for causing environmental damage.

Code of conduct

The Shell code of conduct clearly stipulates the beliefs and values which are applied in the daily operation of the company . The general business principles are eight and they include principle of economics, principles of competition, principle of business integrity, principle of political activities of companies and of employees, principle of health, safety, security and environment, principle of local communities, principle of communication and engagement, and principle of compliance (Shell international limited, 2006, pp. 15-16).

It’s mandatory for Royal Dutch Shell to follow the code of conduct when operating in the foreign countries. For instance, it must comply with laws of the foreign country it operates otherwise it risks facing legal actions. It must pay corporation tax as expected by the governments, and also abide to environmental laws existing in the countries.

Shell BP has many social programs in the countries of operations. For example in Nigeria, Shell is tackling issue s related to corruption (Shell report, 2005, pp. 28).

In addition, the company has embarked on serious anti corruption campaigns in Nigeria to sensitize the people on the need to eradicate the vice. In the recent past, Shell has investigated its contractors and consequently interdicted those found guilty.

Royal Dutch Shell management team must monitor politics and economic performance so as to make effective operational decisions.

Reference List

Docstoc. (2010). Balancing stakeholders needs @ shell-Business Ethics. Retrieved August 2010 from–Shell—BUSINESS-ETHICS

Frynas, J. (1998). Political Instability and business: Focus on Shell in Nigeria. Third World Quarterly. Volume 19, Issue 3. New York: Butterworth.

Press TV. (2010). Shell profits hike 50% on oil price. Retrieved August 16, 2010. From

Shell. (2005). The Shell sustainability report 2005. Retrieved August 16, 2010. From

Shell International Company. (2010). Shell code of conduct: How to live by the Shell General Business principles. London: St lves Westertham Press.

Tatersall, N. (2010). Factbox- Key political risks to watch in Nigeria. Retrieved August 16, 2010 from

Analysis and Review of the Decisions made in the Simulation of the Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care (LHAC)


Organizations in the society exist in an environment that requires comparison with other similar organizations for improvement purposes. Depending on the objectives of an organization, performance benchmarking has proved to be an effective way of ensuring that they maintain a competitive advantage in the industry.

The health sector is not an exception. Through simulation, performance benchmarking is done to ensure that health organizations maintain quality service, the safety of the patients, staff and other people in the sector while fulfilling the standards of the regulators.

The health sector is faced with various issues that require to be addressed. The online simulation process in the health sector is crucial in the training of personnel, making their decision making process easier and ensuring the safety of the patients while making use of innovations in this case. This paper addresses the decisions made in the online simulation of Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care.

Summary of the Simulation

The simulation carried out on Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care was to address the increases in the nosocomial infections. These infections are a threat to the hospital due to its role in ensuring the safety of the patients and other personnel and people involved in the process (Jarvis, 2008).

The increases proved to be unsustainable from a liability perspective since the personnel and other resources were concentrating more on them yet they originated from the hospital practices. The costs involved in their treatment and management proved to be inefficient.

The infections also proved unsustainable from a quality perspective since LHAC was questioned on its quality maintenance and assurance in the process. This was done through performance benchmarking to identify the root causes of the problem, the establishment of airway recommendations and identification of process improvement strategies. The simulation identified the root causes as the equipment practices that were rather inefficient in the hospital and offered recommendations based on effective sanitation and the incorporation of the functional strategy to the business strategy.

Analysis of the Decisions Made in the Simulation

This section addresses the decisions made from the simulation classified as the root cause, the airway recommendations established, the benchmarking partnership and the process improvement strategies.

Identification of the root cause

The Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care (LHAC) has experienced increases in the rates of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections as Jarvis (2008) assert comes as a result of transmission of an infectious disease which could be contagious or caused by a pathogenic organism.

The types of these nosocomial infections range from surgical related infections, central nervous system infections, skin infections, blood stream infections, gastrointestinal infections, urinary tract infections, and respiratory infections which all are facilitated by the conditions and practices at the hospital facilities (Health Grades Inc, 2010). The process of addressing nosocomial infections is critical due to the diagnosis that is sensitive and the fact that some of them turn out to be drug resistant.

The identification of the root cause of the infections was the most prudent way of addressing the issue to avoid recurrences and reduce costs in management. The simulation on Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care (LHAC) identified the root cause of the nosocomial infections increase as the equipment practices in the hospital that were inefficient. This cause was motivated by the exposures to diseases and environmental pollutants in the hospital (Health Grades Inc, 2010).

The inefficient use of facilities was related to lack of homogeneity in the use of equipment in the various departments, sharing of the equipments among departments, poor sanitation of the equipment, the fact that the equipment was not enough while personal responsibility and proper use of the equipment was limited. The infections thus spread even as the number of patients in the departments increased.

The infections were further encouraged by lack of coordination of equipment use. For example, two or more different departments could be using the same equipment in their diagnosis of conditions, which could lead to the easier transmission between patients due to exposure to contaminants. The hospital also lacked tracking systems to monitor the use and care of equipment (Thornton, De Rosa & Craven, 2002).

In addressing the root cause of the problem of nosocomial infections, personally, I could include more monitoring systems and checks of the environmental pollutants and training process of personnel to be able to identify whether their lack of experience with the equipment caused them to be unable to use them or whether it was out of negligence and ignorance and provide the necessary recommendations accordingly.

Establishment of Airway

The identification of the root cause of the nosocomial infections being inefficient handling of equipment at Lenity Hospital, there was a need to offer recommendations that would seek to ensure proper management of the equipment and an environment of safety and caution.

The recommendations offered were on the basis of the risks they posed through contamination to patients, staff and visitors at the hospital. They were also based on the regulations requirements for health safety in the health sector as a way of improving the health care and quality health (Moller & Sonntag, 1998).

The recommendations offered include the effective training of personnel on the use of the equipment and increasing their awareness of the nosocomial infections (Lack, 1996). This recommendation is necessary since the equipment in the health care facilities do require knowledge in the use and maintenance.

The skills on the use of the equipment would make the personnel aware of their contributions in nosocomial infections and provide ways of minimizing them. Another recommendation was the use of a tracking system. This system would serve to ensure the sanitation of the equipment.

The sanitation would be necessary to ensure safety through avoidance of sharing of equipment that poses a high risk of infection (Cohen, 2006). Additionally, the system would require accountability of inventory. It is also recommendable that Lenity hospital ensures the availability of equipment and distribution through out the departments and also ensures reliability where the equipment would be available when needed to avoid the use of other equipment that would increase the risk of infection.

Further, the equipment that is very risky would require being disposable to avoid contamination through reuse due to the sensitivity of the equipment (Moller & Sonntag, 1998). For example the equipment dealing with the injections blood and so on.

The outcome of the recommendation was impressive. Lenity management set up a tracking system for the sanitation of the equipment. They additionally, instituted inventory controls with the employment of inventory clerks. The clerks have the mandate of ensuring that the inventory bought meets the safety requirements and minimizes the risk of infections as much as possible.

They also have the responsibility of ensuring that the equipment is supplied in the hospital in due time and track the stock levels to ensure that the equipment is bought in time. The hospital management also sought on reducing infection through the use of disposable equipment and the maintenance of a sterilizing department to oversee the safety after the cleaning of equipment before reuse.

In doing of the simulation for another time, I could have followed the steps and measures I took in this current one since it was conclusive and the recommendations proved feasible and would not only ensure safety and reduce nosocomial infections, but would also improve the reputation of LHAC and reduce the costs of operation (Zulch & Rinn, 1999).

Benchmarking Partner

The benchmarking partner chosen for this simulation was the information services department of the Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care. This was based on the reason that this was part of the LHAC and so would provide internal information regarding the safety. Additionally, the department would offer statistics to base the simulation on and provide the resources of the best practice in the sector (Cohen, 2006).

The department proved reliable in providing the information needed on the safety levels, use of the equipment, data on nosocomial infections as well as the comparisons with the industry since LHAC covers a great share of market in the health sector. In doing the simulation again, I would incorporate the safety department to assess the levels of safety and comparisons with the safety expectations of the health sector.

Process Improvement Strategies

The functional strategy was chosen to be incorporated in the overall business strategy since the strategy is feasible and applicable in the reference area of ensuring the management of equipment. This strategy emphasizes resource productivity and uses specialized work force (Thornton et al., 2002).

This is recommendable to ensure that the use of equipments at Lenity Hospital is by specialized people to avoid misuse and increase the sensitivity to safety. It was observed that there is need to incorporate the functional strategy to the overall business strategy (Jarillo, 1993). This would be by emphasizing the need for safety and proper management of equipment in every department and the endeavor to reduce the nosocomial infections from a departmental basis.

Summary and Conclusion

The simulation carried out on Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care revealed the root cause of the increasing nosocomial infections as the inefficient equipment practices. This scenario is common not to LHAC only, but in major health care facilities. The inefficient equipment practices are attributable to the strategies of safety and management, lack of awareness in the use of the equipment or lack of personal responsibility.

The simulation recognized the need to address the nosocomial infections as a way of reducing the costs involved in the treatment and management, the improvement of the reputation of LHAC and the fulfillment of the industry safety and legal requirements. The recommendations provided were the establishment of a tracking system, effective training of personnel and the increase in sanitation practices.

The benchmark partner used for the simulation was the information services department of Lenity Hospital while the functional strategy was emphasized with the need to ensure that the overall business strategy acts as the guide in this. The simulation was effectively done without the need for major changes in the approach although the benchmark partner would further incorporate the safety department of Lenity Hospital.

Reference List

Cohen, S. (2006). Virtual Decisions. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publications.

Health Grades Inc. (2010). Nosocomial Infections. Retrieved 19th August, 2010, from

Jarillo, C. (1993). Strategic Networks: Creating Borderless Organizations. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Jarvis, W. (2008). Bennett & Brachman’s Hospital Infections. London: A & C Black Publishers Limited.

Lack, R. (1996). Essentials of Health and Safety Management. New York: CRC Press.

Moller, J., & Sonntag, H. (1998). Systematic analysis and controlling of health care organizations lead to numerical health care improvements. Health Manpower Management, 24(5), 178-182.

Thornton, D., De Rosa, F., & Craven, D. (2002). Nosocomial pneumonia: emerging concepts in diagnosis, management, and prophylaxis. Current Opinion in Critical Care, 8(5), 421-429.

Zulch, G., & Rinn, A. (1999). Simulation based performance analysis and benchmarking. International Journal of Business Performance Management, 1(2), 200-218.

Managing Cross-Cultural Staff

Tabular notes

Bibliographic detailsMurray, S. (2009). Cross-cultural training. sLondon: Financial Times. Available from:

Mead, R. and Andrews, T. (2009) International management culture. 4 ed. England:

John Wiley & Sons.

Vecchi, A. and Brennan, L. (2009) Quality management: a cross-cultural perspective,

International Journal, 16 (2), pp. 149-164.

Trompenaars, F. (2003). Business across cultures. England: Capston.J, Campbell. (2005)Business ethics. Oxon: Routledge
What is an organizational culture?It is the meaning shared amongst members of a given organization, distinct from any other organization.n/an/an/an/a
How does culture affect an international business?With every country having its own communication habits and styles, these companies face cultural differences amongst its diverse employees. Cultural barriers affect the business’ bottom line.Culture influences the way an organization responds to its environment, roles, structure, how members communicate, make decisions and also they respond to the organizational structure.By the varying priorities, performances and practices across nations.n/an/a
Causes of cultural differences in international businessesLanguage barriers, Social norms, total quality management standards.Lack of trainings on management, lack of cultural awarenessFactors that contribute in achieving a Total Quality Managementn/an/a
Can cross cultural differences be resolved?Yes. Trainings on management, cultural rewarding on individuals.Trainings and cultural awarenessYes. With differences in religion and language, cultural homogeneity may be impossible to achieve in a certain nationn/an/a
Do these factors relate to me?Yes. Creating awareness of cultural differences in a company begins with an individual.Yes. As an individual, cultural misunderstanding could affect you adversely if you lack prior knowledge of other cultures.Yes. To achieve cultural homogeneity, individual should have be flexible and interested.
Can they be positively resolved?Yes. By training the workforce.Yes. Through cultural analysis.Yes. Through adopting a variety of cultural practices.

Critique of the Gersick’s Article


Gersick’s 1988 study entitled Time and transition in work teams toward a new model of group development can be pin-pointedly singled out as one of the greatest in-depth researches ever conducted with regards to the intrinsic determinants of the effectiveness of any given group.

Preliminarily, the research was conducted to bridge the knowledge gap left by most group development researchers in talking about the unpredictable nature of group operations. Prior to her research, the existing modules information depicted that group operations were always predictable which—as we later find out from Gersick’s research—is not normally the case (Gersick, 1988, p.9-10).

More importantly, her research cites previously conducted authoritative studies, documents the current happenings and foreshadows what can be done in the future by people coming after her. This greatly serves the purpose of continuity—which is something that is missing in many studies.

Basically, her research involves the selection of eight groups, data collection, data analysis, then from the results; she forms her “theory of punctuated equilibrium.”

Critique of Gersick’s research

Before beginning to offer my comprehensive viewpoint on Gersick’s work, it is crucial to note that my views are based on a thorough analysis of Gersick’s, as well as many other related studies, which endows me with the potential to give a professional assessment. My analysis is going to be based on the questions below which act as a guidelines for summarizing my views.

How would you characterize Gersick’s approach; phenomenological, ethnographic, or grounded theory? Why?

The approach used by Gersick is undoubtedly the Grounded theory approach. Right from the onset of her documented work, we get to know of her data collection; followed by her painstaking analysis of transcripts that contain details from the groups of people she analyzed (Sniezek, 2007).

From here, she decides to formulate a tentative method for “firmer grounding” of her results since most findings were from similar settings thus making it relatively difficult to get note some tiny priceless differences. After establishing the tentative method, she again makes an analysis and circumspectly views the results against her hypothesis and results of the data that she first collected.

It is from this data that she gets to formulate her theory. This approach is typically the Grounded theory which Davidson (2002) defines as “A research method in which the theory is developed from the data, rather than the other way around.”

How would you characterize her data collection process; direct observation, unstructured interviewing, or case study? Why?

Gersick’s data collection is a professional blend or high-breed of the all the above methods. It is a direct observation since his documented research says that she had to attend all the group meetings to get a personal observation of the happenings (Gersick, 1988, p.11-12).

As for being a case study, she selected particular groups of people for her studies (p.11). Finally, it is unstructured interviewing since she says that “I chose an inductive, qualitative approach to increase the chances of discovering the unanticipated and to permit analysis of change and development in the specific content of each team’s work” which is simply unstructured (Gersick, 1998, p.12).

Do Gersick’s findings have face validity? How do they compare with your own experiences in various work groups? Were you surprised by her findings?

Most of Gersick’s work is verifiable thus making it quite valid. The use of valid groups of people from different organizations (Gersick, 1988, p.12-14), group members being professional i.e. university graduates (p.13) and having excerpts during final presentation, (p.16-18) all attribute to the verifiability and thus validity of the findings.

However, the findings were slightly different to my experience in work groups. This greatly surprised me since I never got to witness or read about such an in-depth analysis of occurrences in work group. Additionally, there are many new important dimensions that are highlighted in Gersick’s work (especially towards the concluding pages of her work) which is part of the reason I am awed with her study.

In your opinion, are her findings widely Generalizable? Why?

Yes, although with the exception of some few specific parts. To the weighty side of yes, concepts like most people striving to finish work to in order to beat deadlines rather than ensure group progress or completion of a specific group development stage (Gersick, 1988, p.11-15). On the opposing end, her research should be conducted on a wide range of groups since her studies were conducted on rather similar groups thus might not be aptly representative.

What implications do her findings have for practice? If you really believe that Gersick discovered what she says she discovered, how will that change the way you approach the group task, the next time you’re put in charge of a work group?

From her findings, it is important that a proper plan be laid down for the first group meetings, since what happens there greatly determines the group’s course (Gersick, 1988, p.11-15). Additionally, the “mid point” in group meetings should be timely calculated since this duration offers a good chance of renewing communication flow and ensuring objectivity of group discussions (p.38).

Based on what I have learned from Gersick’s research, if I was put in charge of a group meeting, I would offer good leadership for the timely completion of a task by: adequately planning for group meetings, ensuring that the first group meeting goes according to plan and finally, making sure that the environment for group meetings is devoid of distractions that might hinder completion of the task in time.

How well does the “theory of punctuated equilibrium” fit Gersick’s findings?

Since theories are mostly based on abstract concepts, I would say that Gersick’s findings are largely fitting to her proposed theory. This is because theory fittingly interlinks with the results to fill the gap left by those who ascribe to the traditional theory (Gersick, 1988, p.16).

Did adding that theory to the paper help you understand her findings? In your opinion, did adding that theory to the paper improve it in any way? If so, how?

In as much as Gersick’s representation of her theory on paper is commendable; the representations did not help me much in understanding her findings. It is also for this reason that, in my opinion, adding the theory paper did not improve it any way.


In spite of not greatly improving the theory, the documented findings serve the important role of being able to be used by others for future reference. And in a nutshell, Gersick’s theory is greatly informative not just for researchers but also students who are bound to find it extremely useful.


Davidson, A. L. (2002). Grounded Theory. Essortment. Retrieved August 17, 2010, from

Gersick, C. J.G. (1988). Time and transition in work teams toward a new model of group development. Academy of Management journal, 31(1), 9-41.

Sniezek, S. M. (2007). How groups work: a study of group dynamics and its possible negative implications. Brynmawr. Retrieved August 17, 2010, from

Leon Golub: Historical witness


Leon Golub lived between 1922 and 2004. He was a well known American painter whose paintings and portraits depicted and exposed historical events in Africa and Central America. His paintings were in form of narratives which vividly captured events happening in the real world. The paintings mainly expressed realities of power in terms of the relations between social and political spheres.

Most of his portraits were largely featured in the daily newspapers as well as weekly magazines. His paintings were inspired by major faces of individuals whose names were featured in daily news and events.

With the help of his paintings, Golub argued that the relationship between identity and masculinity with power and dominance is a direct one (The Irish museum of modern art para.1). In the 1980s, Golub created a Mercenaries Series which portrayed major historical conflicts in power and leadership.

This essay entails an analysis of personal views on museum curators exhibited Leon Golub: Historical witness. In addition, essay takes into consideration the mercenaries series in an effort to explore Golub response to the crisis which occurred in Central America and Africa in 1980s.


Golub’s approach to paintings is almost real. Having witnessed the Second World War, his paintings carry with them a historical narration. Bird (16) considers work of art from a classical point of view. He argues that past experiences influence a work of art.

Golub’s paintings clearly depict past experiences through conflicts and manly aggression which are compelled in his images. As a historic artist and painter, Golub is intensely alert of the past history to his own descriptions and symbolism (The Irish museum of modern art para.3).

Museum curators are selected in Golub’s paintings for exhibition because of their significance throughout history. The paintings are chronologically organized in a special way such that they can be traced to a single point in time making them suitable for the archives.

Considering the fact that most of his work revolves around political power along with the habitual exploitation of power through brutality, Golub is able to portray the tyranny and lust for power that took place in the period of neo-colonialism. This is mainly attained via consideration of African history.

His paintings were not portrayed as a secluded inhuman phenomenon but rather as an expression of well thought-out, frequently state-sponsored, repression and violence (The Irish museum of modern art para.5). In his series of Vietnam and mercenaries, the contrast in relationship between black and white soldiers is clearly illustrated. It depicts the racial discrimination that took during the civil in the United States.


The Mercenary Series have had a major significance to the history of the political systems of Africa and Central America at large. Golub’s contribution through artistic paintings provides viable information towards the chronological development of politics in the two continents over the years.

Currently, numerous traditional references ranging from the early artistic work resurface throughout paintings of modern days. Other themes which are still prevailing relate to power, position of man in society and mortality. This means that Leon Golub still remains a model in contemporary society in terms of creating a history through painting as well as painting people who feature in the news and events by vividly describing the relationship that exists between them and their political roles.

Works Cited

Bird, John. Leon Golub: Echoes of the real. London: Reaktion Books Ltd, 2001. Print.

The Irish Museum of Modern Art. Leon Golub exhibition at the Irish museum of modern art. 2000. Web. 17 Aug. 2010.

Communication and technology

McLuhan’s theories arose from the inquiries the logician received to systematically back his media studies (Logan, 2007). The premise analyses four occurrences cooperative to all media and human interactions, specifically to enhance, retrieve, reverse and obsolesce. The innovative structure of media may progress or accelerate the present form of communication, portraying several advantages. It may also repeal its unique characteristics when pushed to new dimensions.

The new forms sometimes acquire characteristics from prior forms of communication and repossess earlier forms of services. Finally, it may lead to the total annihilation of previous forms, leading to their desertion (Poster, 2010). For example, a cell phone may enhance voice connections, reverse controls, retrieve infancy howling, and make the handset radically obsolesce.

The theorist saw culture as technical transformations, which could be easily personalized due to lack of self-sufficiency. Technologies manipulate the way man thinks, work, and share, thus prejudicing their discernment and understanding of information (Lawson, 2004). The materialization of new technology is often accompanied by emotional, material and social effects in the expansive humanity. McLuhan concludes that we create machinery, which in turn influences our etiquette.

Communication media circled from verbal to print in the early 60s, as TV and radio stretched the reach of addressees. This new association brought different societies together, forming prevalent and shared backgrounds. This theory may be used currently in decision making to determine the attainment of profits, or predict changes in an institution linking human interactions.

The society can thus organize and illustrate the new medium or expertise before it presents any alterations in routine. The relationship of technology and communication typifies both the benefits and shortcomings that new machinery provides.

Technological determinism has two magnitudes related to the elemental attributes of technology that do not permit human alterations and a low determinism which may consent human choice and modifications (Lawson, 2004). This emphasizes the relationship between the densities of society and how it influences the forces of expertise.

A HRO is a group which has effectively managed to shun disasters in the highly hazardous environment which characterizes the modern setting. Multipart processes arise in different organizations, apart from the routine procedures which necessitate watchful and unswerving procedures (Dyer & Ericksen, 2004).

Thriving organizations thus continue to reinvent themselves and streamline the response institutions to contain any arising misfortunes. Canadian manufacturers and exporters is an example of a HRO in Canada, depicted in its building of a competitive business setting by providing significant and well-timed capacity (Canadian manufacturers and exporters, 2009)

Safety records do not depend on fortuity, but in an institution’s efficacy in dealing with complex perilous technologies. There are several directorial structures which go beyond the usual traditional hierarchies of decision making to let the personnel make their coherent resolutions based on personal viewpoints. There are instances of unsatisfactorily assessments which may receive condemnation, but advantageous decisions are visibly honored. Everyone thus feels part of the group thus avoiding strict schedules which may fashion monotony.

Individuals standardize themselves into different patterns depending on the customary conditions, rather than the typical one-structured system of organizations (Pool,). Such organizations change their forms from hierarchical to mutually respectful depending on the position.

The organizations stress own learning, thus avoiding the fixed points where instructions are precisely specified. Slip-ups are not punished when a person originally had intentions of performing a positive deed, as it may demoralize employees and fail communication channels owing to the preset instructions.

Engagement in the creation of services requires apt consideration, judging by the accidents that harm the repute of various organizations. Economic barriers have extreme effects in the running of the organization, alongside the appreciation of the Canadian dollar (Myers, 2008).

Another test is to generate more innovators in order to solve common consumer problems and develop their livelihood standards. Competitive pressures affect how the group would create and retain their operation in the innovation of novel technology which ensures the sustainability of the HRO.


Canadian manufacturers and exporters (2009). Dare to compete champions meet their challenges head on… Canadian manufacturers and exporters. Web. Retrieved on August 19, 2010 from

Dyer, L. & Ericksen, J. (2004). Toward a strategic human resource management model of high reliability organization performance.

Center for advanced human resource studies. Web. Retrieved on August 19, 2010 from

Lawson, C. (2004). Technology, technological determinism and the transformational model of technical activity. Rough draft. Web. Retrieved on August 19, 2010 from

Logan, R. (2007). The 14 messages of new media. Media shift: philosophy. Web.

Retrieved on August 19, 2010 from

Myers, J. (2008). Is there a future for manufacturing in Canada? Canadian manufacturers & exporters.
Web. Retrieved on August 19, 2010 from

Pool, R. (1997). Beyond engineering: how society shapes technology. New York: Oxford University Press US.

Poster, M. (2010). “McLuhan and the cultural theory of media”. Media tropes ejournal, Vol. ii, No. 2, 1-18.